BURIAL CHURCHES OF POLISH SOVEREIGNS FROM A TO Z

 

BARI (ITALY)

BURIED IN THE BASILICA OF ST NICHOLAS (Bari, Basilica di San Nicola, Largo Urbano II):

 

Queen BONA SFORZA (+1557), consort of King Sigismund the Old

 

BRNO (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN CONVENT OF AULAE SANCTAE MARIAE (Brno, klášter cisterciaček, Mendlovo námestí):

 

Queen ELIZABETH-RYKSA OF POLAND (+1335), consort of King Wenceslaus II

 

 

COLOGNE (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF COLOGNE (Kölner Dom, Trankgasse):

 

Queen RYCHEZA (+1063), consort of King Mieszko II

 

CZARNOWĄSY (POLAND)

BURIED IN CZARNOWĄSY ABBEY (Czarnowąsy, klasztor):

 

Duchess LUDMILA OF BOHEMIA (+after 1210), consort of Duke Mieszko the Staggerer

 

Probably buried in the abbey, the tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

DRESDEN (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY TRINITY (Kathedrale St. Trinitatis/Hofkirche, Theaterplatz):

 

1. King AUGUSTUS III (+1763)

 

2. Queen MARIA JOSEPHA OF AUSTRIA (+1757), consort of King Augustus III

 

3. Duke of Warsaw FREDERICK AUGUSTUS THE JUST (+1827)

 

4. Duchess of Warsaw MARIA AMALIA OF PALATINATE-ZWEIBRÜCKEN (+1828), consort of Duke Frederick Augustus I

 

GNIEZNO (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION (Gniezno, bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia NMP, ul. Kolegiaty):

 

1. Duchess DOBRAWA OF BOHEMIA (+977), consort of Duke Mieszko I

 

2. Duchess EMNILDA (+1013/17), consort of King Boleslaus I the Brave

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

KALISZ (POLAND)

BURIED IN ST PAUL'S CHURCH (Kalisz, kościół św. Pawła):

 

1. Duke MIESZKO III (+1202)

The tomb which had been situated in the old church was lost during the demolition of the church. The present church is in a different location. The original slab from the tomb of Mieszko III from the old church is to be found in the local museum in Kalisz.

 

2. Duchess EUDOXIA OF KIEV (+after 1181), consort of Duke Mieszko III

She had been probably buried here but the tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

KASSEL (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE AUGUSTINIAN ABBEY OF AHNABERG (Kassel, Kloster Ahnaberg):

 

Queen ADELAIDE OF HESSE (+c.1371), consort of King Casimir III the Great

 

The abbey was demolished in the early 20th century. The tomb has not been preserved.

 

KRAKÓW (POLAND)

BURIED IN WAWEL ROYAL BASILICA

(Kraków, Bazylika Królewska na Wawelu):

 

01. Duke CASIMIR I THE RESTORER (+1058)

Uncertain, the tomb has not been preserved.

 

02. Duchess DOBRONIEGA MARIA OF KIEV (+1087), consort of Duke Casimir I

Uncertain, the tomb has not been preserved.

 

03. Duke BOLESLAUS IV THE CURLY (+1173)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

04. Duke CASIMIR II THE JUST (+1194)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

05. Duke MIESZKO THE STAGGERER (+1211)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

06. Duke LESZEK I THE WHITE (+1227)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

07. King LADISLAUS I THE SHORT (+1333)

 

08. Queen ALDONA ANNA OF LITHUANIA (+1339), consort of King Casimir III the Great

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

09. King CASIMIR III THE GREAT (+1370)

 

10. Queen ST HEDVIG OF ANJOU (+1399)

 

11. King LADISLAUS II JAGIEŁŁO (+1434)

His heart was buried in the Franciscan church in Gródek near Lwów (Poland).

 

12. Queen ANNA OF CILLI (+1416), consort of King Ladislaus II Jagiełło

The tomb has not been preserved.

13. Queen ELIZABETH OF PILCZA (+1420), consort of King Ladislaus II Jagiełło

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

14. Queen SOPHIA OF HOLSZANY (+1461), consort of King Ladislaus II Jagiełło

 

15. King CASIMIR IV JAGIELLONIAN (+1492)

 

16. Queen ELIZABETH OF AUSTRIA (+1505), consort of King Casimir IV Jagiellonian

 

17. King JOHN I ALBERT (+1501)

His heart was buried in the Cathedral of Saints Johns in Toruń (Poland).

 

18. King SIGISMUND I THE OLD (+1548)

 

19. Queen BARBARA ZAPOLYA (+1515), consort of King Sigismund I the Old

 

20. King SIGISMUND II AUGUSTUS (+1572)

His heart was buried in St John's Church in Knyszyn (Poland).

 

21. King STEPHEN BATHORY (+1586)

 

22. Queen ANNA JAGIELLONIAN (+1596)

 

23. King SIGISMUND III VASA (+1632)

 

24. Queen ANNA OF AUSTRIA (+1598), consort of King Sigismund III Vasa

 

25.Queen CONSTANCE OF AUSTRIA (+1631), consort of King Sigismund III Vasa

Her heart was buried in the Church of Our Lady of Grace in Warsaw (Poland).

 

26. King LADISLAUS IV VASA (+1648)

His heart and viscera were buried in St Stanislaus's Cathedral in Wilno (Vilnius, Lithuania).

 

27. Queen CECILIA RENATA OF AUSTRIA (+1644), consort of King Ladislaus IV Vasa

Her heart was buried in the Church of Our Lady of Grace in Warsaw (Poland).

 

28. Queen LOUISE MARIA GONZAGA (+1667), consort of kings Ladislaus IV Vasa and John II Casimir

Her heart was buried in the Church of the Nuns of Visitation in Warsaw (Poland).

 

29. King JOHN II CASIMIR VASA (+1672)

His heart was buried in the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris (France).

 

30. King MICHAEL KORYBUT WIŚNIOWIECKI (+1673)

His viscera were buried in the Latin Basilica in Lwów and his heart was buried in the Cameldolite Church in Warsaw (Poland).

 

31. King JOHN III SOBIESKI (+1696)

His heart was buried in the Capuchin Church in Warsaw.

 

32. Queen MARIA CASIMIRA DE LA GRANGE D'ARQUIEN (+1716), consort of King John III Sobieski

Her heart was buried in the church of St Vincent de Paul in Blois (France).

 

33. King AUGUSTUS II THE STRONG (+1733)

His viscera were buried in the Capuchin Church in Warsaw (Poland) and his heart was buried in the Holy Trinity Cathedral in Dresden (Saxony, now Germany).

 

 

KRAKÓW (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE DOMINICAN BASILICA (Kraków, bazylika Dominikanów, ul. Stolarska):

 

Duke LESZEK II THE BLACK (+1288)

 

KRAKÓW (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE FRANCISCAN BASILICA (Kraków, bazylika Franciszkanów, pl. Wszystkich Świętych):

 

Duke BOLESLAUS V THE CHASTE (+1279)

 

 

LEGNICA (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE (Legnica, kościół Grobu Bożego):

 

Queen HEDVIG OF ŻAGAŃ (+1390), consort of King Casimir III the Great

 

The church had been demolished in the 16th century and the tomb was lost.

 

 

LEHNIN (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY (Lehnin, Klosterkirche, Klosterkirchplatz):

 

Duchess MATILDA OF BRANDENBURG (+1290/98), consort of Duke Henry Probus

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

LUBIŃ (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE BENEDICTINE ABBEY (Lubiń k. Krzywina, opactwo benedyktynów, ul. Mickiewicza):

 

Duke LADISLAUS III THE SPINDLE-SHANKS (+1231)

 

 

NANCY (FRANCE)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF NOTRE DAME DE BONSECOURS (Nancy, église Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours, Rue de Bonsecours):

 

1. King STANISLAUS I LESZCZYŃSKI (+1766)

 

The royal tomb had been despoiled during the French Revolution. Following this incident some of king's remains were transferred to Cracow's Royal Basilica in Poland.

 

2. Queen CATHERINE (+1747), consort of King Stanislaus I

 

 

OSSIACH (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN OSSIACH ABBEY (Stift Ossiach):

 

King BOLESLAUS II THE BOLD (+1081/82)

 

According to an uncertain tradition buried in Ossiach. His presumptive tomb had been opened in 1839, 1953 and in 1955 but king's remains were not found there.

 

 

PFORTA (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY (Bad Kösen, Landesschule Pforta, Schulstr.):

 

Duchess AGNES OF AUSTRIA (+1157/63), consort of Duke Ladislaus II the Exile

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

The buildings of the former abbey are housing now a boarding school.

 

 

PŁOCK (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE BASILICA OF THE ASSUMPTION (Płock, bazylika Wniebowzięcia NMP, ul. Tumska):

 

1. Duke LADISLAUS I HERMAN (+1102)

 

2. Duchess JUDITH OF BOHEMIA (+1086), consort of Duke Ladislaus I Herman

Buried together with her husband in the common tomb.

 

3. Duke BOLESLAUS III THE WRY-MOUTHED (+1138)

Buried together with Duke Ladislaus I Herman in the common tomb.

 

4. Duchess SALOME OF BERG (+1144), consort of Duke Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed

Buried together with her husband in the common tomb.

 

5. Duke CONRAD I OF MAZOVIA (+1247)

Buried together with Duke Ladislaus I Herman in the common tomb.

 

6. Duchess AGAFIA OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKY (+c. 1248), consort of Duke Conrad I of Mazovia

Probably buried together with her husband, but this is uncertain.

 

 

POZNAŃ (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE BASILICA OF ST PETER AND ST PAUL (Poznań, bazylika archikatedralna św. Piotra i Pawła, Ostrów Tumski):

 

1. Duke MIESZKO I (+992)

 

2. King BOLESLAUS I THE BRAVE (+1025)

 

03. King MIESZKO II (+1034)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

04. Duke CASIMIR I THE RESTORER (+1058)

Uncertain, also Cracow's Royal Basilica is mentioned as his burial place. The tomb has not been preserved.

 

05. King PRZEMYSŁ II (+1296)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

06. Duchess RYKSA OF SWEDEN (+1293), consort of King Przemysł II

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

PRAGUE (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CONVENT OF ST AGNES (Praha, klašter sv. Anežky, Anežská):

 

Duchess GRYFINA OF HALICZ (+1303/09), consort of Duke Leszek II the Black

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

PRAGUE (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF ST VITUS (Praha, chram sv. Vita):

 

Duchess JUDITH OF HABSBURG (+1297), consort of Duke Wenceslaus II

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

PRETZSCH (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF ST NICHOLAS (Pretzsch, Stadtkirche St. Nikolaus, Elbstr.):

 

Queen CHRISTIANE EBERHARDINE OF BRANDENBURG-BAYERUTH (+1727),

consort of King Augustus II the Strong

 

 

RATZEBURG (GERMANY)

BURIED IN RATZEBURG CATHEDRAL (Ratzeburger Dom, Domhof):

 

Queen MARGARET OF BRANDENBURG (+1315), consort of King Przemysł II

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

SAINT DENIS (FRANCE)

BURIED IN SAINT-DENIS ABBEY (La basilique Saint-Denis, Place de la Légion d’Honneur):

 

1. King HENRY OF VALOIS (+1589)

The tomb has not been preserved. His heart was firstly buried in the Collegiate Church at Saint-Cloud. In 1818 it was reburied in the Basilica of St-Denis.

 

2. Queen LOUISE OF LORRAINE (+1601), consort of King Henry of Valois

 

 

ST FLORIAN (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN ST FLORIAN ABBEY (Abtei St Florian, Stiftstr.):

 

Queen CATHERINE OF HABSBURG (+1572), consort of King Sigismund II Augustus

 

 

ST PETERSBURG (RUSSIA)

BURIED IN ST PETER AND PAUL'S CATHEDRAL(Sankt Peterburg, Petropavlovsky sobor, Petropavlovskaya Krepost):

 

1. King ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA (+1825)

 

2. Queen ELIZABETH OF BADEN (+1826), consort of King Alexander I

 

3. King NICHOLAS I OF RUSSIA (+1855)

 

4. Queen ALEXANDRA OF PRUSSIA (+1860), consort of King Nicholas I

 

Reproduced courtesy of Mrs Simone Sommer

 

 

STARY SĄCZ (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE ABBEY OF POOR CLARES-CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY (Stary Sącz, klasztor Klarysek, kościół Trójcy Przenajświętszej, Trakt Św. Kingi):

 

1. Duchess ST KINGA OF HUNGARY (+1292), consort of Duke Boleslaus V the Chaste

 

2. Queen HEDVIG OF GREAT POLAND (+1339), consort of King Ladislaus I the Short

The tomb has not been preserved. Inside the abbey church the Queen's interment has been commemorated with a black marble epitaph in Polish.

 

 

SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR, (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE CORONATION BASILICA (Székesfehérvár, Koronazó-bazilika):

 

1. King LOUIS THE GREAT OF HUNGARY (+1382)

 

2. Queen ELIZABETH OF BOSNIA (+1387), consort of King Louis I the Great

 

The basilica and the tombs were demolished by invading Turks in 1601.

 

 

TRZEBNICA (POLAND)

BURIED IN ST HEDVIG'S BASILICA (Trzebnica, bazylika św. Jadwigi, ul. Jana Pawła II):

 

1. Duke HENRY I THE BEARDED (+1238)

 

2. Duchess ST HEDVIG (+1243), consort of Duke Henry I the Bearded

 

 

TYNIEC (POLAND)

BURIED IN TYNIEC ABBEY (Tyniec, opactwo, ul. Benedyktyńska):

 

Duke ZBIGNIEW (+1113)

Uncertain, the tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

VARNA (BULGARIA)

MAUSOLEUM OF KING LADISLAUS OF VARNA (Varna, Mavzolei na Kral Vladislav Varnenchik, bul. Jan Hunyadi):

 

King LADISLAUS III OF VARNA (+1444)

 

The body of King Ladislaus III had never been found following the disastrous Battle of Varna. At the initiative of Petar Dimkov the Mausoleum was built in 1934/35 on the battlefield where the king had perished. The Skorpil brothers, 19th c. Czech historians claimed, however, that the king had been buried in the Church of St Panagia in Varna. A cenotaph in his memory was raised in the 19th c. in the Cathedral of Kraków (Poland).

 

 

VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE CAPUCHIN CHURCH (Wien, Kapuzinerkirche, Neuer Markt):

 

Queen ELEANOR OF HABSBURG (+1697), consort of King Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

 

 

VILNIUS/WILNO (LITHUANIA)

BURIED IN THE BASILICA OF ST STANISLAUS (Vilnius, Sv. Stanislovo Bazilika, Katedros aikste/Wilno, bazylika św. Stanisława, plac Katedralny):

 

1. King ALEXANDER (+1506)

 

2. Queen ELIZABETH OF HABSBURG (+1545), consort of King Sigismund II Augustus

 

3. Queen BARBARA OF RADZIWIŁŁ(+1551), consort of King Sigismund II Augustus

 

 

VILNIUS/WILNO (LITHUANIA)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE VIRGIN MARY (Vilnius, Skaisčiausios Dievo motinos cerkvė, Maironio g./Wilno, sobór Przeczystej Bogarodzicy, ul. Św. Anny):

 

1. Queen HELEN OF MUSCOVY (+1513), consort of Grand Duke Alexander

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

VYŠŠI BROD (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY (Vyšší Brod, cisterciácký klášter, ul. Míru):

 

Queen VIOLA ELIZABETH OF CIESZYN (+1317), consort of King Wenceslaus III

LIST OF POLISH SOVEREIGNS 960-1918

 

DUCHY OF POLAND TO 1025:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

c. 960-992: MIESZKO I

Born in c. 935.

Father: Duke Siemomysł of Great Poland. Mother: ?

Married firstly in 965 Princess DOBRAWA of Bohemia (*c. 940,+977).

Married secondly in 978/80 ODA (*c. 955,+1023 Saxony). Burial place unknown.

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-BOLESLAUS I THE BRAVE (*967,+1025),

-Świętosława/Gunhild (*966/72,+1014/16; Queen of Sweden and Denmark).

Died in 992.

According to tradition buried in the Cathedral of Poznań.

His first consort Duchess Dobrawa of Bohemia was buried in Gniezno Cathedral.

 

 

992 -1025: BOLESLAUS I THE BRAVE (Bolesław I Chrobry; King 1025, Duke of Bohemia 1003-1004)

 

 

KINGDOM OF POLAND 1025-1034:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1025: BOLESLAUS I THE BRAVE (Bolesław I Chrobry; Duke of Bohemia 1003-1004)

Born in 967.

Father: Duke Mieszko I of Poland. Mother: Duchess Dobrawa of Bohemia.

Married firstly in 984 daughter of Margrave of Meissen. Repudiated.

Married secondly in 986 daughter of Duke Géza of Hungary. Repudiated.

Married thirdly in 988/9 West Slav Princess EMNILDA (*970/5,+1013/17).

Married fourthly in 1018 ODA of Meissen (+after1025).

He was crowned in 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral.

It is uncertain whether his fourth consort was crowned, too.

His issue who reigned:

-BEZPRYM (*986/7,+1032; son of Hungarian princess),

-MIESZKO II (*990,+1034; son of Emnilda).

Died in 1025.

According to tradition buried in the Cathedral of Poznań.

His third consort Duchess Emnilda was probably buried in Gniezno Cathedral (no tomb).

The place of burial of his fourth consort remains unknown.

 

 

1025-1031 and 1032-1034: MIESZKO II

Born in 990 in Cracow.

Father: King Boleslaus I the Brave of Poland. Mother: Duchess Emnilda.

Married in 1013 RYCHEZA (*c. 996,+1063 Saalfeld; niece of Emperor Otto III of Germany).

He and his consort were crowned in 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral.

His issue who reigned: CASIMIR I THE RESTORER (*1016,+1058).

Deposed in 1031 and exiled in Bohemia 1031-1032. Regained his throne in 1032.

Died in 1034.

Buried in the Cathedral of Poznań (no tomb).

His consort Queen Rycheza was firstly buried at Our Lady's Church in Cologne, Germany.

In the early 19th c. her remains were translated to Cologne Cathedral.

 

 

1031-1032: BEZPRYM (Duke)

Born in 986/7.

Father: King Boleslaus I the Brave of Poland. Mother: Princess ? of Hungary.

Unmarried.

Deposed and murdered in 1032. Burial place unknown.

 

 

DUCHY OF POLAND 1034-1076:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1034-1058: CASIMIR I THE RESTORER (Kazimierz I Odnowiciel)

Born in 1016 in Cracow.

Father: King Mieszko II of Poland. Mother: Queen Rycheza.

Married in 1041 Princess DOBRONIEGA MARIA of Kiev (*1012/16,+1087 Cracow).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-BOLESLAUS II THE BOLD (*1041/42,+1081/82),

-LADISLAUS I HERMAN (*1044,+1102),

-Świętosława (*1046/48,+1126; Queen of Bohemia).

Deposed in c. 1037 and exiled in Hungary until 1039. Restored in 1039.

Died in 1058.

Probably buried with his consort in the Royal Basilica in Cracow (no tomb).

 

 

1058-1076: BOLESLAUS II THE BOLD (Bolesław II Śmiały; King from 1076)

 

KINGDOM OF POLAND 1076-1079:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1076-1079: BOLESLAUS II THE BOLD (Bolesław II Śmiały/Szczodry)

Born in 1042.

Father: Duke Casimir I the Restorer of Poland. Mother: Duchess Dobroniega Maria.

Married before 1069 probably Princess WIACZESŁAWA of Kiev.

He was crowned in 1076 in Gniezno Cathedral.

Deposed in 1079 and exiled in Hungary.

Died in 1081/82 in Austrian Carinthia, or in Hungary.

According to tradition buried at Ossiach Abbey in Carinthia, Austria.

 

 

DUCHY OF POLAND 1079-1295 and 1296-1300:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1079-1102: LADISLAUS I HERMAN (Władysław I Herman)

Born in 1044.

Father: Duke Casimir I the Restorer of Poland. Mother: Duchess Dobroniega Maria.

Married firstly before 1070 an unknown princess.

Married secondly in c. 1080 Princess JUDITH of Bohemia (*c. 1058,+1086).

Married thirdly in 1088 Dowager Queen of Hungary JUDITH of Germany (*1054 Goslar,+after 1105 Germany).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-ZBIGNIEW (*c. 1070, +after 1114; son from the first marriage),

-BOLESLAUS III THE WRY-MOUTHED (*1086,+1138; son of Judith).

Deposed in c. 1037 and exiled in Hungary until 1039. Restored in 1039.

Died in 1102.

Buried in Płock Cathedral with his second consort Duchess Judith of Bohemia.

 

 

1102-1107: ZBIGNIEW

Born in 1070/73. Father: Duke Ladislaus I Herman of Poland. Mother: ?.

Unmarried.

He was never crowned.

Deposed in 1107 and exiled in Bohemia and Germany until 1111.

Died probably in 1113 in Tyniec.

Probably buried in Tyniec Abbey near Cracow.

 

 

1102-1138: BOLESLAUS III THE WRY-MOUTHED (Bolesław III Krzywousty)

Born in 1086.

Father: Duke Ladislaus I Herman of Poland. Mother: Duchess Judith of Bohemia.

Married firstly in 1103 Princess ZBYSŁAWA of Kiev (*c. 1090,+c. 1114). Burial place unknown.

Married secondly in 1115 Countess SALOME of Berg (*1093/1101,+1144).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-LADISLAUS II THE EXILE (*1105,+1159; son of Zbysława),

-Ryksa (*1116,+after 1156; Queen of Sweden; daughter of Salome),

-BOLESLAUS IV THE CURLY (*1121/22,+1173; son of Salome),

-MIESZKO III THE OLD (*1122/25,+1202; son of Salome),

-CASIMIR II THE JUST (*1138,+1194).

Died in 1138 probably in Sochaczew.

Buried in the Cathedral of Płock with his second consort Duchess Salome.

 

 

1138-1146: LADISLAUS II THE EXILE (Władysław II Wygnaniec)

Born in 1105.

Father: Duke Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed of Poland. Mother: Duchess Zbysława of Kiev.

Married in 1123/24 AGNES of Austria (*1108/12,+1157/63 Germany).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-MIESZKO THE STAGGERER (*before 1146,+1211),

-Rycheza (*1130/40,+1185; Queen of Castile and León).

Deposed in 1146 and exiled in Bohemia and Germany.

Died in 1159 in Germany.

His burial place is not known although Altenburg and Pegau (Germany) are menioned by mediaeval chroniclers.

His consort Duchess Agnes of Austria is said to have been buried in the Cistercian Abbey in Pforta, Germany (no tomb).

 

 

1146-1173: BOLESLAUS IV THE CURLY (Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy)

Born in 1121/22.

Father: Duke Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed of Poland. Mother: Duchess Salome.

Married firstly in 1136/37 in Cracow Princess WIERZCHOSŁAWA of Novgorod (*c. 1125,+before 1167).

Married secondly in 1160/65 Princess MARIA of Przemyśl (*c. 1140,+after 1173).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1173.

Buried either in Cracow's Royal Basilica, or with his both consorts in Płock Cathedral.

 

 

1173-1177, 1191, 1198-1199, 1202: MIESZKO III THE OLD (Mieszko III Stary)

Born in 1121/25.

Father: Duke Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed of Poland. Mother: Duchess Salome.

Married firstly in 1140 Princess Elizabeth of Hungary (*c. 1128,+1151/54).

Married secondly in 1151/54 Princess EUDOXIA of Kiev (*c. 1140,+after 1181).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-Elizabeth (*c. 1152,+1209; Duchess of Bohemia; daughter of Elizabeth),

-LADISLAUS III THE SPINDLE-SHANKS (*1161/66,+1231; son of Eudoxia).

Deposed and restored three times.

Died in 1202.

Buried (probably with his second consort Duchess Eudoxia) at St Paul's Church in Kalisz (demolished).

 

 

1177-1194: CASIMIR II THE JUST (Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy)

Born in 1138.

Father: Duke Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed of Poland. Mother: Duchess Salome.

Married in 1160/65 Princess HELENA of Znojmo (*1141/50,+1202/06). Burial place unknown.

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-LESZEK I THE WHITE (*c. 1168,+1227),

-CONRAD I OF MAZOVIA (*1187/88,+1247).

Died in 1194 in Cracow.

Buried in Cracow's Royal Basilica (no tomb).

 

 

1202-1227: LESZEK I THE WHITE (Leszek I Biały)

Born in c. 1186.

Father: Duke Casimir II the Just of Poland. Mother: Duchess Helen.

Married in 1207 Princess GRZYMISŁAWA of Łuck (*after 1190,+1258).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-BOLESLAUS V THE CHASTE (*1226,+1279),

-Salome (*1211,+1268; Queen of Halicz/Galicia).

Died in 1227 in Marcinkowo near Gąsawa (assassinated).

Buried in Cracow's Royal Basilica (no tomb).

His consort Duchess Grzymisława was buried at Franciscan Church in Zawichost (no tomb).

 

 

1202, 1228-1231: LADISLAUS III THE SPINDLE-SHANKS (Władysław III Laskonogi)

Born in 1061/66.

Father: Duke Mieszko III the Old of Poland. Mother: Duchess Eudoxia.

Married in 1186/90 Duchess Lucia of Rugia/Rügen (+after 1208). Burial place unknown.

He was never crowned.

Died in 1231 in Środa Śląska, Silesia.

Probably buried in Lubiń Abbey (no tomb).

 

 

1210-1211: MIESZKO THE STAGGERER (Mieszko Plątonogi)

Born before 1146.

Father: Duke Ladislaus II the Exile of Poland. Mother: Duchess Agnes of Austria.

Married in 1170/78 Princess LUDMILA of Bohemia (+after 1210).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1211.

Buried in Cracow's Royal Basilica (no tomb).

His consort Duchess Ludmila was buried in Czarnowąsy Abbey near Opole, Silesia.

 

 

1231-1238: HENRY I THE BEARDED (Henryk I Brodaty)

Born in 1165/70.

Father: Duke Boleslaus I the Tall of Silesia. Mother: Duchess Christina.

Married in c. 1192 Countess HEDVIG of Andechs, better known as Saint Hedvig of Silesia (*c. 1178 Andechs, Bavaria,+1243 Trzebnica, Silesia).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned: HENRY II THE PIOUS (*1196/1207,+1241).

Died in 1238.

Buried with his consort Duchess St Hedvig in St Hedvig's Basilica in Trzebnica, Silesia.

 

 

1238-1241: HENRY II THE PIOUS (Henryk II Pobożny)

Born in 1196/1207.

Father: Duke Henry I the Bearded of Poland. Mother: Duchess St Hedvig of Silesia.

Married in 1214/18 Princess ANNA of Bohemia (*1204,+1265).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1241 on the battlefield in Dobre Pole near Legnica, Silesia.

His body, decapitated by Tartars was buried in the Franciscan Church in Wrocław.

His consort Duchess Anna was buried in the Church of Poor Clares (now Ursuline Church) in Wrocław.

 

 

1229, 1241-1243: CONRAD I OF MAZOVIA (Konrad I Mazowiecki; Duke of Mazovia)

Born in 1187/88.

Father: Duke Casimir II the Just of Poland. Mother: Duchess Helen.

Married in 1207 Princess AGAFIA of Novgorod-Seversky (*c. 1180,+c. 1248).

He was never crowned.

His issue who reigned:

-Boleslaus I (*c. 1208,+1248; Duke of Mazovia),

-Siemowit I (*c. 1215,+1262; Duke of Mazovia).

Died in 1247.

Buried (probably with his consort Duchess Agafia) in Płock Cathedral.

 

 

1243-1279: BOLESLAUS V THE CHASTE (Bolesław V Wstydliwy)

Born in 1226.

Father: Duke Leszek I the White of Poland. Mother: Duchess Grzymisława of Łuck.

Married in c. 1247 Princess KINGA of Hungary (*1234 Buda,+1292).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1279.

Buried in the Franciscan Basilica in Cracow.

His consort Duchess St Kinga was buried in the Church of The Holy Trinity in Stary Sącz.

 

 

1279-1288: LESZEK II THE BLACK (Leszek II Czarny)

Born in 1240/42.

Father: Duke Casimir I of Cujavia. Mother: Duchess Constance of Silesia.

Married in 1265 Princess GRYFINA of Halicz (*1244/51,+1303/09 Prague).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1288.

Buried in the Dominican Basilica in Cracow.

His consort Duchess Gryfina was buried in the Convent of St Agnes in Prague (no tomb).

 

 

1288-1290: HENRY PROBUS (Henryk IV Probus)

Born in 1257.

Father: Duke Henry III the White of Wrocław. Mother: Duchess Judith of Mazovia.

Married firstly before 1280 Princess Constance (?) of Opole (*c. 1256,+1351). Repudiated.

Married secondly in 1286/87 MATILDA of Brandenburg (*c. 1270,+before 1298).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1290 in Wrocław.

Buried at The Holy Cross Church in Wrocław.

His consort Duchess Matilda was buried at the Cistercian Abbey in Lehnin near Potsdam, Germany (no tomb).

 

1290-1291: PRZEMYSŁ II (King from 1295)

 

 

HOUSE OF PŘEMYSLID (Przemyślidzi)

1291-1300: WENCESLAUS II (Wacław II; King from 1300; King of Bohemia)

 

 

KINGDOM OF POLAND 1295-1296 and 1300-1306:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1295-1296: PRZEMYSŁ II

Born in 1257 in Poznań.

Father: Duke Premysł I of Great Poland. Mother: Duchess Elizabeth of Silesia.

Married firstly in 1273 in Szczecin Ludgarda of Mecklenburg (*1259/61,+1283 Poznań).

Married secondly in 1285 Princess RYKSA (Rikissa) of Sweden (*1270,+1293).

Married thirdly in 1293 MARGARET of Brandenburg (*1270,+1315).

He and his third consort were crowned in 1295 in the Cathedral in Gniezno.

His issue who reigned: Ryksa Elizabeth (*1288 Poznań,+1335, Brno; Queen of Bohemia; daughter of Ryksa).

Died in 1296 in Rogoźno (assassinated).

Buried with his second consort Duchess Ryksa of Sweden in the Cathedral of Poznań.

His first consort was buried in Gniezno Cathedral.

His third consort Queen Margaret was buried in Ratzeburg Cathedral, Germany (no tomb).

 

 

HOUSE OF PŘEMYSLID (Przemyślidzi

1300-1305: WENCESLAUS II (Wacław II; King of Bohemia)

Born in 1271 in Prague.

Father: King Přemysl Otakar II of Bohemia. Mother: Queen Kunigunda of Hungary.

Married firstly in 1285 in Prague JUDITH of Habsburg (*1271 Rheinfelden,+1297 Prague).

Married secondly in 1303 in Prague Princess RYKSA ELIZABETH of Poland (*1288 Poznań,+1335 Brno, Moravia).

He was crowned in 1300 in the Cathedral of Gniezno.

His second consort Ryksa Elizabeth was crowned in 1303 in the Cathedral of St Vitus in Prague.

His issue who reigned:

-WENCESLAUS III (*1289,+1306; son of Judith),

-Elizabeth (*1292,+1330; Queen of Bohemia; daughter of Judith).

Died in 1305 in Prague.

Buried in the Church of Our Lady in the Cistercian Abbey in Zbraslav near Prague. In 1991 reburied in the Church of St James in Zbraslav.

His first consort Duchess Judith was buried in the Cathedral of St Vitus in Prague.

His second consort Queen Ryksa Elizabeth was buried at the Cistercian Convent in Brno.

 

 

1305-1306: WENCESLAUS III (Wacław III; King of Bohemia and Hungary)

Born in 1289 in Prague.

Father: King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. Mother: Queen Judith of Bohemia.

Married in 1305 Princess VIOLET ELIZABETH of Cieszyn (*c. 1291,+1317).

He was never crowned.

Died in 1306 in Olomouc, Moravia (stabbed).

Buried firstly at the Cathedral in Olomouc.

In 1326 his remains were reburied in the Church of Our Lady in the Cistercian Abbey in Zbraslav near Prague.

His Queen Violet Elizabeth of Cieszyn was buried in the Cistercian Monastery in Vyšší Brod, Bohemia.

 

 

DUCHY OF POLAND 1306-1320:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1306-1320: LADISLAUS IV THE SHORT (Władysław IV Łokietek; King from 1320 as Ladislaus I)

 

KINGDOM OF POLAND 1320-1795:

HOUSE OF PIAST (Piastowie)

1320-1333: LADISLAUS I THE SHORT (Władysław I Łokietek)

Born in 1259/60.

Father: Duke Casimir I of Cujavia. Mother: Duchess Eufrozyna of Opole.

Married in c. 1293 Princess HEDVIG (Jadwiga) of Kalisz (*1266/76,+1339 Stary Sącz).

He and his consort were crowned in 1320 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His issue who reigned:

-Elizabeth (*1305,+1380; Queen of Hungary),

-CASIMIR III THE GREAT (*1310,+1370).

Died in 1333 in Cracow.

Buried in the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His Queen Hedvig was buried at the Church of the Holy Trinity in Stary Sącz.

 

 

1333-1370: CASIMIR III THE GREAT (Kazimierz III Wielki)

Born in 1310 in Cracow (or in Kowal).

Father: King Ladislaus I the Short of Poland. Mother: Queen Hedvig of Great Poland.

Married firstly in 1325 in Cracow Princess ALDONA ANNA of Lithuania (*1309,+1339 Cracow, no tomb).

Married secondly in 1341 in Poznań ADELAIDE of Hesse (*c. 1324,+1371 Kassel).

Married thirdly (morganatically and bigamously) in 1356 probably in Cracow Christina of Rokitno (+c. 1364).

Married fourthly and bigamously in 1365 in Wschowa Princess HEDVIG of Żagań (*c. 1350,+1390 Legnica).

He and his first consort Aldona Anna were crowned in 1333 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His second consort Adelaide was crowned in 1341 at the Cathedral in Poznań.

His issue who reigned:

-Elizabeth (*1326/34,+before 1363; Duchess of Pomerania; daughter of Aldona Anna),

-Kunigunde (*before 1335,+1357; Electress of Brandenburg; daughter of Aldona Anna).

Died in 1370 in Cracow.

Buried with his Queen Aldona Anna of Lithuania in the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His second Queen Adelaide of Hesse was buried in the Augustinian Abbey Ahnaberg in Kassel, Germany (demolished).

His fourth consort Queen Hedvig of Żagań was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Legnica, Silesia (demolished).

 

 

HOUSE OF ANJOU (Andegawenowie)

1370-1382: LOUIS THE GREAT OF HUNGARY (Ludwik Węgierski; King of Hungary and Croatia)

Born in 1326 in Visegrád, Hungary.

Father: King Charles I Robert of Hungary. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Poland.

Married firstly in c. 1345 Princess Margaret of Luxembourg (*1335,+1349).

Married secondly in 1353 in Cracow ELIZABETH of Bosnia (*c. 1340,+1387 Dalmatia).

He was crowned in 1370 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His issue who reigned:

-Maria (*1371,+1395; Queen of Hungary; daughter of Elizabeth),

-ST HEDVIG (*1374,+1399; daughter of Elizabeth).

Died in 1382 in Trnava (now Slovakia).

Buried at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár, Hungary (demolished).

His second consort Queen Elizabeth of Bosnia was firstly buried in the Church of St Chrysogonus at Zadar, Dalmatia. In 1390 her body was translated and reburied in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár, Hungary (demolished).

 

1382-1399: QUEEN ST HEDVIG OF ANJOU (Św. Jadwiga Andegaweńska)

Born in 1374 in Buda, Hungary.

Father: King Louis the Great of Poland-Hungary. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Bosnia.

Married in 1386 in Cracow Grand Duke Ladislaus Jagiełło of Lithuania (*c. 1351,+1434 Gródek).

She was crowned in 1374 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Her consort was crowned in 1386 in Cracow's Royal Basilica.

Died in 1399 in Cracow.

Buried at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

HOUSE OF JAGIEŁŁO (Jagiellonowie)

1386-1434: LADISLAUS II JAGIEŁŁO (Władysław II Jagiełło; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in c. 1351 in Lithuania.

Father: Grand Duke Algirdas (Olgierd) of Lithuania. Mother: Grand Duchess Juliana of Tver.

Married firstly in 1386 in Cracow Queen of Poland HEDVIG of Anjou (*1374 Buda,+1399 Cracow).

Married secondly in 1402 in Cracow Countess ANNA of Cilli (*c. 1381 Celje,+1416 Cracow).

Married thirdly in 1417 in Sanok ELIZABETH Granowska of Pilcza (*c. 1372,+1420 Cracow).

Married fourthly in 1422 in Nowogródek Princess SOPHIA of Holszany (*c. 1405,+1461 Cracow).

He was crowned in 1386 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His four consorts were crowned in 1384, 1403, 1417 and 1424 respectively in Cracow's Royal Basilica.

His issue who reigned:

-LADISLAUS III (*1424,+1444; son of Sophia),

-CASIMIR IV (*1427,+1492; son of Sophia).

Died in 1434 in Gródek near Lwów.

Buried with his four queens at the Royal Basilica in Cracow. Tombs of queens Anna and Elizabeth were lost.

 

 

1434-1444: LADISLAUS III OF VARNA (Wladyslaw III Warneńczyk; King of Hungary and Croatia)

Born in 1424 in Cracow.

Father: King Ladislaus II of Poland. Mother: Queen Sophia of Holszany.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1434 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Died in 1444 on battlefield near Varna, Bulgaria. King's head was taken by Turks to Brussa in Asia Minor.

A mausoleum in Varna and a cenotaph in Cracow's Royal Basilica were erected in king's memory but his decapitated body was never found.

 

 

1444-1447: INTERREGNUM

 

 

1447-1492: CASIMIR IV JAGIELLONIAN (Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1427 in Cracow.

Father: King Ladislaus II of Poland. Mother: Queen Sophia of Holszany.

Married in 1454 in Cracow Archduchess ELIZABETH of Austria (*1436 Vienna,+1505 Cracow).

He was crowned in 1447 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His consort was crowned in 1454 in Cracow's Royal Basilica.

His issue who reigned:

-Ladislaus II (*1456,+1516; King of Bohemia and Hungary),

-Hedvig (*1457,+1502, Electress of Bavaria),

-JOHN I ALBERT (*1459,+1501),

-ALEXANDER (*1461,+1506),

-Sophia (*1464,+1512; Electress of Brandenburg),

-SIGISMUND I (*1467,+1548),

-Barbara (*1478,+1534; Electress of Saxony).

Died in 1492 in Grodno.

Buried with his Queen Elizabeth at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

1492-1501: JOHN I ALBERT (Jan I Olbracht)

Born in 1459 in Cracow.

Father: King Casimir IV of Poland. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Austria.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1492 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Died in 1501 in Toruń.

Buried at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

1501-1506: ALEXANDER (Aleksander Jagiellończyk; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1461 in Cracow.

Father: King Casimir IV of Poland. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Austria.

Married in 1495 in Wilno/Vilnius Princess HELENA of Muscovy (*1476 Moscow,+1513 Brasław).

He was crowned in 1501 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His consort was never crowned.

Died in 1506 in Wilno/Vilnius.

Buried in the Basilica of St Stanislaus in Wilno/Vilnius.

His consort Queen Helena was buried at the Orthodox Church of Immaculate Virgin Mary in Wilno/Vilnius (no tomb).

 

 

1506-1548: SIGISMUND I THE OLD (Zygmunt I Stary; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1467 in Kozienice.

Father: King Casimir IV of Poland. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Austria.

Married firstly in 1512 in Cracow BARBARA Zapolya (*1495 Hungary,+1515 Cracow).

Married secondly in 1518 in Cracow Princess BONA Sforza of Milan (*1494 Vigevano near Milan,+1557 Bari, Italy).

He was crowned in 1507 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His first consort in 1512, his second consort in 1518 - both in Cracow's Royal Basilica.

His issue who reigned:

-Hedvig (*1513,+1573; Electress of Brandenburg; daughter of Barbara),

-Isabella (*1519,+1559; Queen of Hungary; daughter of Bona),

-SIGISMUND II AUGUSTUS (*1520,+1572; son of Bona),

-Sophia (*1522,+1575; Duchess of Brunswick; daughter of Bona),

-ANNE JAGIELLONIAN (*1523,+1596; daughter of Bona),

-Catherine (*1526,+1583; Queen of Sweden; daughter of Bona).

Died in 1548 in Cracow.

Buried with his Queen Barbara at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His second consort Queen Bona was firstly buried at Bari Cathedral. In 1593 she was reburied in the Basilica of St Nicholas in Bari, Italy.

 

 

1529/48-1572: SIGISMUND II AUGUSTUS (Zygmunt II August; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1520 in Cracow.

Father: King Sigismund I of Poland. Mother: Queen Bona Sforza of Milan.

Married firstly in 1543 in Cracow Archduchess ELIZABETH of Habsburg (*1526 Linz,+1545 Wilno/Vilnius).

Married secondly in 1547 in Wilno (Vilnius) Princess BARBARA of Radziwiłł (*1520 Wilno or Dubinki,+1551 Cracow).

Married thirdly in 1553 in Cracow Archduchess CATHERINE of Habsburg (*1533 Vienna,+1572 Linz).

He was crowned in 1530 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His first consort in 1543, his second consort in 1550, his third consort in 1553 - all in Cracow's Royal Basilica.

Died in 1572 in Knyszyn.

Buried at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His first consort Queen Elizabeth and his second consort Queen Barbara were both buried in the Basilica of St Stanislaus in Wilno/Vilnius.

His third consort Queen Catherine was buried at St Florian's Abbey near Linz, Austria.

 

 

HOUSE OF VALOIS (Walezjusze)

1573-1574/75: HENRY OF VALOIS (Henryk Walezy; Grand Duke of Lithuania, King of France)

Born in 1551 at Fontainebleau, France.

Father: King Henry II of France. Mother: Queen Catherine de Medici.

Shortly before his dethronement in 1575 he married in Reims, France Countess LOUISE de Lorraine-Vaudémont

(*1553 Nomeny,+1601 Moulins).

He was crowned in 1574 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Following his departure from Poland in 1574 he was dethroned in 1575 in Stężyca.

He became king of France in 1574.

Died in 1589 in Saint-Cloud near Paris (stabbed).

Buried firstly in Compiègne. In 1610 his remains were translated to the Basilica of Saint-Denis near Paris.

His Queen Louise was firstly buried at the Capuchin Convent in Paris.

In 1817 her remains were translated to the Basilica of Saint-Denis near Paris.

 

 

HOUSE OF BATHORY (Batory)

1575-1586: STEPHEN BATHORY (Stefan Batory; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1533 in Somlyó, Transylvania.

Father: Stephen VI of Transylvania. Mother: Anna Catherine Thelegdi.

Married in 1576 in Cracow Queen Anne Jagiellonian of Poland (*1523 Cracow,+1596 Warsaw).

He was crowned in 1576 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Died in 1586 in Grodno.

Buried in 1588 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

HOUSE OF JAGIEŁŁO (Jagiellonowie)

1575-1596: ANNE JAGIELLONIAN (Anna Jagiellonka; Grand Duchess of Lithuania)

Born in 1523 in Cracow.

Father: King Sigismund I the Old of Poland. Mother: Queen Bona Sforza of Milan.

Married in 1576 in Cracow Prince STEPHEN Bathory of Transylvania (*1533 Somlyó,+1586 Grodno).

She was crowned in 1576 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Died in 1596 in Warsaw.

Buried at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

HOUSE OF VASA (Wazowie)

1587-1632: SIGISMUND III VASA (Zygmunt III Waza; King of Sweden, Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1566 at Gripsholm Castle in Sweden.

Father: King John III of Sweden. Mother: Queen Catherine Jagiellonian, born Princess of Poland-Lithuania.

Married firstly in 1592 in Cracow Archduchess ANNA of Austria (*1573 Graz,+1598 Warsaw).

Married secondly in 1605 in Cracow Archduchess CONSTANCE of Austria (*1588 Graz,+1631 Cracow).

He was crowned in 1587 in the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His first consort was crowned in 1592, his second consort in 1605, both in Cracow's Royal Basilica.

His issue who reigned:

-LADISLAUS IV (*1595,+1648; son of Anna),

-JOHN II CASIMIR (*1609,+1672; son of Constance).

Died in 1632 in Warsaw.

Buried with his two queens at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

1632-1648: LADISLAUS IV (Wladyslaw IV; Grand Duke of Lithuania, Czar of Russia)

Born in 1595 in Łobzów near Cracow (Kraków).

Father: King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. Mother: Queen Anna of Austria.

Married firstly in 1637 in Warsaw Archduchess CECILIA RENATA of Austria (*1611 Graz,+1644 Wilno/Vilnius).

Married secondly in 1646 in Warsaw Princess LOUISE MARIE Gonzaga de Nevers (*1611 Paris or Nevers,+1667 Warsaw).

He was crowned in 1633 in the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His first consort Cecilia Renata was crowned in 1637 at St John's Basilica in Warsaw.

His second consort Louise Marie was crowned in 1646 in the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Died in 1648 in Merecz, Lithuania.

Buried with his two queens at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

1648-1668: JOHN II CASIMIR (Jan II Kazimierz; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1609 in Cracow (Kraków).

Father: King Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. Mother: Queen Constance of Austria.

Married in 1649 in Warsaw Dowager Queen Louise Marie of Poland (*1611 Paris or Nevers,+1667 Warsaw).

He was crowned in 1649 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

Abdicated in 1668. Left Poland for France in 1669.

Died in 1672 in Nevers, France.

Buried firstly at the Jesuit Church in Nevers, France.

In 1675 king's remains were translated to Poland and in 1676 buried at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

 

 

HOUSE OF WIŚNIOWIECKI

1669-1673: MICHAEL I (Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1640 in Wiśniowiec, Volhynia.

Father: Duke Jeremi Michał Wiśniowiecki. Mother: Gryzelda Konstancja née Zamoyska.

Married in 1670 in Częstochowa Archduchess ELEANOR of Habsburg (*1653 Vienna,+1697 Innsbruck).

He was crowned in 1669 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His consort was crowned in 1670 at St John's Basilica in Warsaw.

Died in 1673 in Lwów.

Buried in 1676 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His Queen Eleanor was buried in the Capuchin Church in Vienna (Austria).

 

 

HOUSE OF SOBIESKI

1674-1696: JOHN III SOBIESKI (Jan III Sobieski; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1629 in Olesko.

Father: Jakub Sobieski. Mother: Zofia Teofila née Daniłowicz.

Married in 1665 in Warsaw MARIA CASIMIRA de la Grange d’Arquien (*1641 Nevers, France,+1716 Castle Blois, France).

He and his consort were crowned in 1676 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His issue who reigned: Theresa Kunigunda (*1676,+1730; Electress of Bavaria).

Died in 1696 in Wilanów near Warsaw.

Buried firstly in the Capuchin Church in Warsaw. In 1734 his coffin was translated to the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His Queen Maria Casimira was firstly buried in Blois, France.

In 1716 her remains were translated to Warsaw's Capuchin Church and in 1734 to Cracow's Royal Basilica.

 

 

HOUSE OF WETTIN (Wettynowie)

1697-1704 and 1710-1733: AUGUSTUS II THE STRONG OF SAXONY

(August II Mocny; Grand Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony)

Born in 1670 in Dresden, Saxony.

Father: Elector John George III of Saxony. Mother: Electress Anna Sophia, Princess of Denmark.

Married in 1693 in Dresden CHRISTIANE EBERHARDINE of Brandenburg-Bayeruth (*1671 Bayeruth,+1727 Pretzsch).

He was crowned in 1697 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His consort was never crowned.

His issue who reigned: AUGUSTUS III (*1696,+1763).

Deposed in 1704 in Warsaw. Restored in 1710.

Died in 1733 in Warsaw.

Buried at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His Queen Christine was buried in the Church of St Nicholas in Pretzsch, Saxony.

 

 

HOUSE OF LESZCZYŃSKI

1704-1710 and 1733-1736: STANISLAUS I LESZCZYŃSKI (Stanisław I Leszczyński; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1677 in Lwów.

Father: Rafał Leszczyński. Mother: Anna née Jabłonowska.

Married in 1698 in Cracow Catherine (Katarzyna) née Opalińska (*1680 Poznań,+1747 Luneville, France).

He and his consort were crowned in 1705 at St John's Basilica in Warsaw.

His issue who reigned: Maria (*1703,+1768; Queen of France).

Deposed twice: in 1710 and 1736. Exiled in Germany (1710-1733) and in France (1736-1766).

Died in 1766 in Nancy (France).

Buried with his Queen Catherine in the Church of Notre Dame de Bon Secours in Nancy.

 

 

HOUSE OF WETTIN (Wettynowie)

1733/36-1763: AUGUSTUS III OF SAXONY (August III; Grand Duke of Lithuania, Elector of Saxony)

Born in 1696 in Dresden, Saxony.

Father: King Augustus II the Strong of Poland. Mother: Queen Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayeruth.

Married in 1719 in Vienna Archduchess MARIA JOSEPHA of Austria (*1699 Vienna,+1757 Dresden).

He and his consort were crowned in 1734 at the Royal Basilica in Cracow.

His issue who reigned:

-Frederick Christian (*1722,+1763; Elector of Saxony),

-Maria Amalia (*1724,+1760; Queen of Spain),

-Maria Anna (*1728,+1797; Electress of Bavaria),

-Carl Christian (*1733,+1796; Duke of Courland).

Died in 1763 in Dresden.

Buried with his Queen Maria Josepha in the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Dresden.

 

 

HOUSE OF PONIATOWSKI

1764-1795: STANISLAUS II AUGUSTUS (Stanisław II August; Grand Duke of Lithuania)

Born in 1732 in Wołczyn, Polesie.

Father: Count Stanisław Poniatowski. Mother: Princess Konstancja Czartoryska.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1764 in St John's Cathedral in Warsaw.

Forced to abdicate in 1795 in Grodno.

Exiled 1795-1797 in Grodno and 1797-1798 in St Petersburg (Russia) where he remained under house arrest.

Died in 1798 in St Petersburg.

Buried firstly at St Catherine's Roman Catholic Church in St Petersburg.

In 1938 king's remains were translated to the Church of The Holy Trinity at his former estate in Wołczyn, Polesie.

After 1945 his tomb was despoiled by the Soviets. In 1989 his remains had been translated to Warsaw and in 1995 buried in the Basilica of St John in Warsaw.

 

 

1795-1807: POLAND DIVIDED AND ANNEXED TO RUSSIA, PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA

 

 

DUCHY OF WARSAW 1807-1815 (united with Saxony):

HOUSE OF WETTIN (Wettynowie)

1807-1815: FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I THE JUST (Fryderyk August I; King of Saxony)

Born in 1750 in Dresden, Saxony.

Father: Elector Frederick Christian of Saxony. Mother: Electress Maria Antonia of Bavaria.

Married in 1769 in Dresden MARIA AMALIA of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (*1752 Mannheim,+1828 Dresden).

He was never crowned.

Dethroned in 1815.

Died in 1827 in Dresden.

Buried with his consort Duchess Maria Amalia in the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Dresden.

 

 

1815: THE DUCHY OF WARSAW DIVIDED BETWEEN PRUSSIA AND RUSSIA

 

 

KINGDOM OF POLAND 1815-1831 (Russian protectorate):

HOUSE OF ROMANOV (Romanowowie)

1815-1825: ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA (Aleksander I; Czar of Russia)

Born in 1777 in St Petersburg.

Father: Emperor Paul I of Russia. Mother: Empress Maria Fedorovna née Sophia of Württemberg.

Married in 1793 at St Petersburg Princess LOUISE MARIE of Baden (*1779 Karlsruhe,+1826 Byelev).

He was never crowned in Poland.

Died in 1825 in Taganrog (S. Russia).

Buried with his consort Queen Elizabeth (née Louise of Baden) at St Peter and Paul's Cathedral in St Petersburg.

 

 

1825-1831: NICHOLAS I OF RUSSIA (Mikołaj I; Czar of Russia)

Born in 1796 in Gatchina near St Petersburg.

Father: Emperor Paul I of Russia. Mother: Empress Maria Fedorovna née Sophia of Württemberg.

Married in 1817 at St Petersburg Princess CHARLOTTE of Prussia (*1798 Charlottenburg,+1860 Tsarskoye Selo).

He was crowned in 1829 at the Royal Castle in Warsaw.

His consort was present but not crowned.

His issue who reigned: Alexander II (*1818,+1881; Czar of Russia).

Dethroned by the Polish Parliament in 1831 in Warsaw.

Died in 1855 in St Petersburg.

Buried with his consort Queen Alexandra (née Charlotte of Prussia) at St Peter and Paul's Cathedral in St Petersburg.

 

 

After 1831 Russian czars were not crowned as kings of Poland. The autonomy of the Kingdom of Poland was much limited after 1831, only to be finally abolished in 1864 when the kingdom was annexed directly to Russia.

 

 

KINGDOM OF POLAND 1916-1918

(Austro-German protectorate):

Archduke Karol Stefan Habsburg of Żywiec (*1860,+1933 in Żywiec) had been designated to be the new king of Poland, but never assumed his duties.

 

 

REPUBLIC OF POLAND FROM 1918

 

The cenotaph of Duke MIESZKO I and King BOLESLAUS THE BRAVE in the Cathedral of Poznań (Poland)

 

The tomb of Duchess DOBRAWA OF BOHEMIA, consort of Duke Mieszko I, in the Cathedral of Gniezno (Poland)

 

Photo courtesy of Dr Jerzy Paździora

 

 

The tomb of Queen RYCHEZA, consort of King Mieszko II, in the Cathedral of Cologne (Germany)

 

The tomb (according to tradition) of King BOLESLAUS II THE BOLD in Ossiach Abbey (Austria)

 

 

The common tomb of Duke LADISLAUS I HERMAN, his consort JUDITH OF BOHEMIA, Duke BOLESLAUS III THE WRY-MOUTHED, his consort Duchess SALOME OF BERG, Duke CONRAD I OF MAZOVIA and probably his consort AGAFIA

 

 

Funerary monument to King PRZEMYSŁ II and his first consort Duchess RYCHEZA OF SWEDEN in Poznań Cathedral (Poland)

 

 

The tomb of King WENCESLAUS II in Zbraslav Abbey (Czech Republic)

 

The cenotaph of King LADISLAUS III OF VARNA in his Mausoleum in Varna (Bulgaria)

 

 

The tomb of King STANISLAUS II AUGUSTUS in St John's Basilica in Warsaw (Poland)

 

Photo courtesy of Dr Jerzy Paździora

 

WARSAW (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE BASILICA OF ST JOHN THE BAPTIST (Warszawa, bazylika archikatedralna św. Jana Chrzciciela, ul. Świętojańska):

 

King STANISLAUS II AUGUSTUS (+1798)

 

Photo courtesy of Mr Tomasz Moszczyński

 

WROCŁAW (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE FRANCISCAN CHURCH OF ST JACOB (Wrocław, kościół Franciszkanów pw. św. Jakuba, pl. Biskupa Nankiera):

 

Duke HENRY II THE PIOUS (+1241)

The sarcophagus is kept in the National Museum in Wrocław.

 

WROCŁAW (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE HOLY CROSS CHURCH (Wrocław, kościół Świętego Krzyża, pl. Kościelny):

 

Duke HENRY PROBUS (+1290)

The sarcophagus is kept in the National Museum in Wrocław.

 

Photo courtesy of Ms Małgorzata Kosmala

 

FOREIGN ROYAL BURIALS IN POLAND

DARŁOWO: Eric of Pomerania, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

GŁOGÓW: Maria Anna von Oettingen-Spielberg, Princess of Liechtenstein, consort of Prince Joseph John Adam

HENRYKÓW: William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

POKÓJ: Louise of Stolberg-Gedern, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen, consort of Duke Charles

ŻAGAŃ:

1. Anna Dorothea von Medem, Duchess of Courland, consort of Duke Peter Biron

2. Pauline of Courland, Princess of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, consort of Prince Frederick

3. Peter Biron, Duke of Courland

 

WROCŁAW (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE URSULINE CHURCH OF ST CLARE (Wrocław, kościół Urszulanek p.w. św. Klary i św. Jadwigi, Plac Biskupa Nankiera):

 

Duchess ANNA OF BOHEMIA (+1265), consort of Duke Henry II the Pious

 

ZAWICHOST (POLAND)

BURIED IN THE FRANCISCAN CHURCH OF ST JOHN THE BAPTIST (Zawichost, kościół Franciszkanów pw. św. Jana Chrzciciela, ul. 11. Listopada):

 

Duchess GRZYMISŁAWA OF ŁUCK (+1258), consort of Duke Leszek I the White

 

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

POLISH REGALIA

 

The only surviving pieces of Polish regalia include:

-crowns, orbs and sceptres of King Augustus III and his consort Queen Maria Josepha together with his coronation mantle from 1733 are kept at the National Museum in Warsaw,

 

-the coronation sword made for Augustus III in 1733 is kept in the Cathedral Treasury at the Royal Basilica in Cracow (Kraków),

 

-Szczerbiec, the coronation sword of Polish kings (13th century) is kept at the Royal Castle Wawel in Cracow,

 

-the coronation mantles of kings Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki (1669) and Stanislaus II Augustus (1764) are kept at the Wawel Cathedral Museum in Cracow,

 

-a set of regalia, including a crown, a sceptre and an orb, made for Augustus II the Strong of Saxony for his Polish coronation in 1697. It was never used, however. Augustus II’s regalia are kept in Dresden’s Armoury (Rüstkammer) in Germany but are to be moved to the Royal Palace when it has been finally rebuilt.

 

Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown, the royal crown of the Polish kings (14th century) and the queen’s crown, alongside with the orbs, the sceptres and four other Polish royal crowns, one orb and three sceptres were stolen by Prussian troops from the Royal Treasury at Cracow in 1795, carried away to Prussia and finally destroyed in 1809/11 on the order of the king of Prussia Frederick William III.

 

Boleslaus the Brave's Crown (14th century)

 

A modern copy of the Crown of Boleslaus the Brave

 

Photo: Piotr Droździk, ©Adam Orzechowski

http://www.replikiregaliowpl.com/

 

ZBRASLAV (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY CHURCH OF ST JAMES THE GREATER (Zbraslavský klášter, kostel sv. Jakuba Vetšího, U Národní galerie):

 

King WENCESLAUS II (+1305)

 

 

ZBRASLAV (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE ABBEY CHURCH OF OUR LADY (Zbraslavský klášter, kostel Panny Marie):

 

King WENCESLAUS III (+1306)

The tomb was lost in the 18th century during the demolition of the church.

 

 

POLISH CORONATION CHURCHES

 

GNIEZNO, BASILICA OF THE ASSUMPTION (Gniezno, Bazylika Katedralna Wniebowzięcia NMP, ul. Kolegiaty).

Here were crowned:

1025: Boleslaus I the Brave

1025: Mieszko II and Rycheza

1076: Boleslaus II the Bold

1295: Przemysł II and Margaret of Brandenburg

1300: Wenceslaus II

 

KRAKÓW/CRACOW, ROYAL BASILICA (Kraków, Bazylika Królewska na Wawelu).

Here were crowned:

1320: Ladislaus I the Short and Hedvig of Great Poland

1333: Casimir III the Great and Aldona Anna of Lithuania

1370: Louis the Great of Hungary

1384: Saint Hedvig of Anjou

1386: Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1403: Anna of Cilli (Celje), consort of Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1417: Elizabeth of Pilcza, consort of Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1424: Sophia of Holszany, consort of Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1434: Ladislaus III of Varna

1447: Casimir IV Jagiellonian

1454: Elizabeth of Austria, consort of Casimir IV Jagiellonian

1492: John I Albert

1501: Alexander Jagiellonian

1507: Sigismund I the Old

1512: Barbara Zapolya, consort of Sigismund I the Old

1518: Bona Sforza of Milan, consort of Sigismund I the Old

1530: Sigismund II Augustus

1543: Elizabeth of Habsburg, consort of Sigismund II Augustus

1550: Barbara of Radziwiłł, consort of Sigismund II Augustus

1553: Catherine of Habsburg, consort of Sigismund II Augustus

1574: Henry of Valois

1576: Stephen Batory and Anna Jagiellonian

1587: Sigismund III Vasa

1592: Anna of Austria, consort of Sigismund III Vasa

1605: Constance of Austria, consort of Sigismund III Vasa

1633: Ladislaus IV

1646: Louise Marie Gonzaga, consort of Ladislaus IV

1649: John II Casimir

1669: Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

1676: John III Sobieski and Maria Casimira de la Grange d’Arquien

1697: Augustus II the Strong

1734: Augustus III and Maria Josepha of Austria

 

 

POZNAŃ, BASILICA OF ST PETER AND ST PAUL (Poznań, Bazylika Archikatedralna Św. Piotra i Pawła, Ostrów Tumski).

Here was crowned:

1341: Adelaide of Hesse, consort of Casimir III the Great

HISTORY OF THE POLISH REGALIA

BY MARIUSZ PAŹDZIORA

 

Poland witnessed its first coronation in 1025, when Boleslaus I the Brave was crowned King of Poland at Gniezno Cathedral. Several years later, amid political turmoil, Polish regalia were taken by Queen Rycheza, the consort of Boleslaus the Brave’s successor, King Mieszko II, to Germany and handed over to the emperor. As a reward, the Emperor Conrad II allowed Rycheza to retain the queen’s crown. In 1633, when her tomb in Cologne was opened, the said crown was found inside, but later - like the king’s crown six centuries earlier - it too, disappeared.

The next king of Poland, Boleslaus II the Bold and his consort had to order new crowns for their coronation in 1076. Boleslaus the Bold’s regalia were used during the successive Polish coronations of Przemysl II and his consort Margaret of Brandenburg in 1295, and of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia in 1300. Following his coronation in Gniezno, Wenceslaus II took the Polish crown with him to Prague, where it disappeared for good. No images of the first two sets of Polish regalia have survived to the present day, if they ever existed at all.

 

Ladislaus I the Short, who following a long period of mediaeval fragmentation, united Poland into one kingdom, had no other choice but to order a new set of regalia, the third such in Polish history, for his and his consort’s coronation in 1320. Apart from new crowns the king introduced a new coronation venue: Cracow replaced Gniezno as the place of royal coronations. Although the new Polish crown had nothing to do with Poland’s first king Boleslaus I the Brave, it was soon to be universally known as, and referred to, as Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown. It went down in history under this very name. The name was most probably adopted in order to underline the continuity of the Polish monarchy and its ancient traditions associated with the famous meeting of Duke Boleslaus the Brave and Emperor Otto III in AD 1000 at Gniezno, when the emperor placed a crown, or a royal diadem, on Boleslaus the Brave’s head, what was seen by many contemporaries as Boleslaus’s coronation and the recognition of Poland’s sovereignty by the Holy Roman Empire.

 

 

The Polish royal crown, Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown, like most European regalia, had a turbulent and exciting history before it was destroyed on the orders of the Prussian king, Frederick William III, in the early 19th century. Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown consisted of ten gold segments in shaped as fleurs-de-lis arched with four hoops surmounted with a gold globe and a cross on its top. The hoops and the globe and the cross were probably late 14th century additions, as initially the Polish crown was a corona aperta. Later additions had changed the character of the crown creating the corona clausa, like most European crowns. The ten gold segments of the crown could be detached from one another and duly adjusted to the proportions of the royal head. The last king of Poland, Stanislaus II Augustus, had the crown adjusted for his coronation in 1764, so that he used only eight of the ten fleur-de-lis segments. Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown was adorned with a substantial number of pearls, rubies, emeralds and sapphires. Each gold segment contained ten pearls, eleven big gemstones and twenty small ones, which added up to an imposing number of one hundred pearls, one hundred and ten large gems and two hundred small ones. According to a 1609 account of the Polish regalia kept at the Royal Treasury in Cracow, the king’s crown was adorned with 396 gems and pearls. In 1730 the number increased to 454, and in 1792, three years before the Prussian theft of the Polish regalia, to 474! In contrast to the earlier mediaeval Polish regalia, Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown was depicted on several occasions. Apart from royal portraits it was documented in a 1764 drawing by Marcello Bacciarelli, the court painter of the unfortunate Stanislaus II Augustus, and at about the same time it was painted-alongside with other Polish regalia used for Stanislaus II’s coronation-by Jan Krzysztof Werner.

 

Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown was the most venerated item of the Polish regalia, which can be compared to the Hungarians’ veneration of St Stephen’s Crown, as almost all Polish kings, starting with Ladislaus I the Short in 1320 were crowned with it. The Polish royal crown was therefore associated with the most fortunate period in Polish history, when Poland emerged united under Ladislaus the Short and soon made her way up as one of the major political powers in Europe. The Piast Dynasty, which descended from Poland’s first king, Boleslaus I the Brave and his ancestors, died out with Casimir III the Great in 1370. That same year the Angevins of Hungary ascended the Polish throne. Louis the Great of Hungary was crowned king of Poland in Cracow (1370) and returned shortly thereafter to Hungary, taking Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown with him. When Louis the Great’s daughter Hedvig was to be crowned as the next sovereign of Poland in 1384, a new crown had to be ordered for the occasion, as King Louis’s widow, Elizabeth of Bosnia, refused to return Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown to Polish hands. It is not known which crown Hedvig was crowned with, but it is quite possible that the Polish queen’s crown from 1320 was used, as King Louis the Great took with him to Hungary only the king’s regalia, leaving the remaining Polish regalia in Cracow.

 

In 1385 Poland and Lithuania entered a long lasting union. The Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jagiello, married Queen Hedvig of Poland and in 1386 he was duly crowned king of Poland as Ladislaus II Jagiełło. As Elizabeth of Bosnia continued to refuse to hand over the Polish royal crown, "a new crown of gold and precious stones" was made for the king, according to a Polish chronicler. Not much is known about the new crown, nor what finally happened to it. In spite of ordering a new crown, Ladislaus II Jagiełło had not given up pressing the Hungarians for the return of Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown. Finally in 1412 the new Hungarian king, Sigismund of Luxembourg, returned the Polish crown. It was then transferred to Cracow, where amid joyful celebrations the crown and other regalia were exhibited in Our Lady’s church for all to see. It was the first public exhibition of the Polish national regalia.

The next king to be crowned with Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown was the unfortunate Ladislaus III of Varna in 1434. Thirteen Polish kings after him were crowned with it, ending with Stanislaus II Augustus in 1764. There were only three exceptions. Stephen Batory was crowned with the so called Hungarian crown in 1576, as his political opponents locked up Boleslaus the Brave’s crown in the Royal Treasury in Cracow, in an attempt to prevent Stephen Batory’s coronation.

 

Poland in the early 18th century was a country in turmoil: Augustus II, supported by Russia, had been dethroned, giving way to Stanislaus I, who was supported by Sweden. With the Swedish occupation of parts of Poland, Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown was in 1702 taken abroad to safety in Silesia and hidden there. In 1705 Stanislaus I Leszczyński (whose daughter Maria was Louis XV’s consort and Queen of France) was crowned in Warsaw under Swedish protection with a crown which was especially prepared for the occasion by the Swedes. A Polish chronicler of the time remarked that the gold crown was taken away from the king right after his coronation and quickly used to strike coins for the Swedish troops. Five years after his coronation, following the Swedish defeat at Poltava, Stanislaus I was dethroned by victorious Russian troops, who then restored Augustus II. Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown and the other regalia were returned to Cracow in 1730. In 1733 Stanislaus I was reelected king of Poland. A minority of the electorate opted for Augustus III, son of Augustus II. Poland found itself again in turmoil and once again the Polish regalia were hidden, in order not to allow the coronation of Augustus III, who enjoyed Russia’s support.

 

Stanislaus I had the chance to wear Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown in 1733 when he was restored to the Polish throne. The king appeared in the Holy Cross Church in Warsaw in the splendour of the Polish regalia, wearing Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown which had been hidden in the very same church. But this was not a coronation, as the validity of the 1705 coronation was recognised. Soon, however, Russian troops supporting Augustus III approached Warsaw and Stanislaus I was forced to flee Poland one more time. The Polish regalia were taken to the Jasna Góra monastery in Czestochowa and hidden there in order not to allow Augustus III to be crowned king of Poland. But Augustus III was fully prepared for such a possibility. In 1733 he had a new set of regalia made in Saxony for his Polish coronation and was duly crowned with them in 1734 at Cracow. In 1736 the opponents of Augustus III gave up and finally handed over Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown to the Royal Treasury in Cracow, where it remained until 1795.

 

Poland witnessed its last coronation in 1764 (1), this time in Warsaw, where the last king of Poland, Stanislaus II Augustus, was crowned with the entire splendour of the Polish regalia. Prior to the coronation an unusual exhibition had taken place: for the first time for centuries the Polish regalia, brought especially for the coronation from Cracow, were put on public display in Warsaw’s Royal Castle. The last public display of the Polish regalia took place in 1792 at Cracow’s Royal Castle. The last inventory of Polish regalia was drawn up prior to the exhibition by a special parliamentary commission. The 1792 inventory of Polish regalia included:

1. The King’s crown, the so called Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown or corona originalis sive privilegiata.

2. The Queen’s crown.

3. The Homage crown or corona homagialis.

4. The so called Hungarian crown.

5. The so called Swedish crown.

6. Four sceptres.

7. Five orbs.

8. Four swords, including the coronation sword of Polish kings, Szczerbiec.

 

The final decades of the 18th century proved especially disastrous for Poland. The kingdom suffered three partitions initiated by Russia, Prussia and Austria in 1772, 1793 and finally in 1795, which effectively erased the Polish Kingdom from the map of Europe. Following the second partition, the Poles organised a national insurrection the aim of which was to save the rump of Poland from foreign occupation. The result was just the reverse: the Russians, Prussians and Austrians occupied and effectively divided the rump of Poland among themselves. In 1794 Prussian troops captured Cracow and, as Cracow was to be given over to the Austrians, the Prussian king, Frederick William II, gave an immediate order to plunder the Polish Crown Treasury. In 1795, a few months before handing over Cracow to the Austrians, the Prussians stormed the powerful gates of the Polish Royal Treasury and stole all the Polish regalia inside it, including Boleslaus the Brave’s Crown. The assault was carried out secretly, as the Prussian king was afraid of Austrian and Russian reactions to this unprecedented act of barbarity. Before the Prussian garrison left Cracow in January 1796, the Polish regalia were carried away to Prussian Silesia and then to Berlin. The Austrians having discovered this unbelievable theft, made an immediate written account of what they saw in the treasury following the takeover of Cracow from Prussian hands. It was corroborated by numerous witnesses.

 

The Duchy of Warsaw which emerged under Napoleon Bonaparte’s auspices, demanded that the Polish regalia be returned by the Prussian king. The Prussians did not bother to answer, and the Poles did not press hard enough for the return of the regalia. In 1800 Augustus Duke of Sussex had a chance to see for himself the stolen Polish regalia, during his visit to Berlin. In his account to a Polish friend, the Duke of Sussex said that during that visit "A crown of your kings was placed on my head". The account of the Duke of Sussex is an important piece of evidence corroborating the Prussians’ responsibility for the theft of the Polish regalia. Nine years after the Duke of Sussex tried on Boleslaus the Brave’s crown, the Polish regalia were sent to Königsberg and destroyed on the personal orders of Frederick William III, King of Prussia. The gold obtained from the regalia (over 25 pounds) was used by the Prussians to mint gold coins, while the numerous gemstones and the pearls were sold. In 1700 the so called Crown of Muscovy, ordered for the coronation of Polish Crown Prince Ladislaus (later Ladislaus IV) as the czar of Russia, was pawned with Elector Frederick, later king of Prussia. This crown, too, was destroyed in 1809 along with the remaining Polish regalia.

 

The Kingdom of Poland created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was nothing more than a Russian protectorate. The Russian czars wanted to keep an illusion of Polish "independence", therefore both Alexander I and Nicholas I insisted on being crowned in Warsaw. On several occasions the czars had demanded the Polish regalia to be returned to them, but the King of Prussia remained silent. The only piece of Polish regalia which escaped destruction at Prussian hands was the coronation sword of the Polish kings, the thirteenth century Szczerbiec ("the nicked"). It was later sold to a Russian agent who then sold it to a Russian antique collector. The sword changed hands several times in course of the 19th century and finally it was purchased by the Russian czar in 1884 for the Hermitage Museum in Petersburg. But the turbulent history of the coronation sword of the Polish kings did not end here. In 1928, eight years after the Soviet defeat in the Polish-Soviet war of 1920, the Soviet government fulfilled one of its commitments to return the most important historical artifacts stolen by the Russians in Poland and the returned objects included the coronation sword of the Polish kings. Szczerbiec remained in Poland for barely eleven years. Following the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, the sword and other treasures from the Royal Collections in Cracow, were shipped to Rumania, then to France and finally to Canada. They were returned to Poland in 1959 and the coronation sword of the Polish kings has been on display at Cracow’s Royal Castle ever since.

 

Apart from Szczerbiec, the only Polish regalia which have been preserved down to our own times are the crowns, sceptres and orbs used for the 1734 coronation of Augustus III of Saxony and his consort Maria Josepha. Augustus III’s regalia were ordered in 1733 just a few months before the intended coronation. The crowns were made of gilded silver by a Saxon goldsmith, Heinrich Köhler. Originally the regalia were adorned with precious gemstones, but later these were replaced with imitations. Both crowns are closed (coronae clausae) and surprisingly no cross surmounts any of them. Each of them is arched with four hoops. The king’s crown is adorned with seventeen big rubies and twelve smaller ones, sixteen big sapphires, ten smaller ones and a huge one on the crown’s top. Further, the crown is adorned with ten big emeralds and twenty-four small ones, and finally with fifty-six diamonds. The queen’s crown is adorned with one hundred and thirty-nine diamonds and pearls. Following Augustus III’s coronation, the regalia were taken back to Warsaw, but later removed to Dresden, where Augustus III resided, visiting Warsaw only on a few occasions. Augustus III’s regalia remained in Dresden’s Grünes Gewölbe until 1924, when the Saxon Landtag returned them to the former king of Saxony, Frederick Augustus III. Frederick Augustus III, who was a well-known collector of china figurines, exchanged Augustus III’s regalia for precious china figurines from a Viennese antique shop. In 1925 the Polish government purchased Augustus III’s regalia in Vienna for 175,000 zlotys (c. $ 35,000). The regalia were exhibited at Warsaw’s Royal Castle until 1939. Following the German occupation of Poland in 1939 the regalia were hidden by the employees of the National Museum in Warsaw, but were soon discovered by the Germans. In 1940 they were taken to Cracow by order of the German governor general of occupied Poland, Hans Frank. Soon, however, they were sent back to Warsaw and in the summer of 1944, alongside with thousands of other artifacts stolen from Polish museums, they were dispatched to Germany. The crowns were found by Soviet troops in Germany and then sent to the USSR where they remained until 1960. In 1960 the Soviets decided to return the crowns to their satellite, communist Poland. Augustus III’s regalia were deposited in Warsaw’s National Museum where they are kept.

 

NOTES:

(1) Last coronation as an independent country. In the 19th century one Russian czar, Nicholas I, was crowned in Warsaw as king of the Congress Kingdom of Poland. Nicholas I, who was crowned in 1829, was dethroned by the Polish Parliament barely two years later.

 

The regalia of King Augustus III (1734)

 

The regalia of Queen Maria Josepha (1734)

 

PRAGUE, CATHEDRAL OF ST VITUS/BOHEMIA (Praha, chram sv. Vita).

Here was crowned:

1303: Ryksa Elizabeth of Poland, consort of Wenceslaus II (as Queen of Poland)

 

WARSAW, BASILICA OF ST JOHN THE BAPTIST (Warszawa, Bazylika Archikatedralna Św. Jana Chrzciciela, ul. Świętojańska):

Here were crowned:

1637: Cecilia Renata of Austria, consort of Ladislaus IV

1670: Eleanor of Habsburg, consort of Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

1705: Stanislaus I Leszczyński and Catherine

1764: Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski

 

Photo courtesy of Mr Tomasz Moszczyński

 

 

POLISH CORONATIONS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER (Year, venue, name of the crowned):

1025 GNIEZNO: Boleslaus I the Brave

1025 GNIEZNO: Mieszko II and Rycheza

1076 GNIEZNO: Boleslaus II the Bold

1295 GNIEZNO: Przemysł II and Margaret of Brandenburg

1300 GNIEZNO: Wenceslaus II

1303 PRAGUE: Ryksa of Poland, consort of Wenceslaus II

1320 CRACOW: Ladislaus I the Short and Hedvig of Great Poland

1333 CRACOW: Casimir III the Great and Aldona Anna of Lithuania

1341 POZNAŃ: Adelaide of Hesse, consort of Casimir III the Great

1370 CRACOW: Louis the Great of Hungary

1384 CRACOW: Saint Hedvig of Anjou

1386 CRACOW: Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1403 CRACOW: Anna of Cilli, consort of Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1417 CRACOW: Elizabeth of Pilcza, consort of Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1424 CRACOW: Sophia of Holszany, consort of Ladislaus II Jagiełło

1434 CRACOW: Ladislaus III of Varna

1447 CRACOW: Casimir IV Jagiellonian

1454 CRACOW: Elizabeth of Austria, consort of Casimir IV Jagiellonian

1492 CRACOW: John I Albert

1501 CRACOW: Alexander Jagiellonian

1507 CRACOW: Sigismund I the Old

1512 CRACOW: Barbara Zapolya, consort of Sigismund I the Old

1518 CRACOW: Bona Sforza of Milan, consort of Sigismund I the Old

1530 CRACOW: Sigismund II Augustus

1543 CRACOW: Elizabeth of Habsburg, consort of Sigismund II Augustus

1550 CRACOW: Barbara of Radziwiłł, consort of Sigismund II Augustus

1553 CRACOW: Catherine of Habsburg, consort of Sigismund II Augustus

1574 CRACOW: Henry of Valois

1576 CRACOW: Stephen Batory and Anna Jagiellonian

1587 CRACOW: Sigismund III Vasa

1592 CRACOW: Anna of Austria, consort of Sigismund III Vasa

1605 CRACOW: Constance of Austria, consort of Sigismund III Vasa

1633 CRACOW: Ladislaus IV

1637 WARSAW: Cecilia Renata of Austria, consort of Ladislaus IV

1646 CRACOW: Louise Marie Gonzaga, consort of Ladislaus IV

1649 CRACOW: John II Casimir

1669 CRACOW: Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

1670 WARSAW: Eleanor of Habsburg, consort of Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki

1676 CRACOW: John III Sobieski and Maria Casimira de la Grange d’Arquien

1697 CRACOW: Augustus II the Strong

1705 WARSAW: Stanislaus I Leszczyński and Catherine

1734 CRACOW: Augustus III and Maria Josepha of Austria

1764 WARSAW: Stanislaus II Augustus Poniatowski

1829 WARSAW: Nicholas I of Russia

 

WARSAW, THE ROYAL CASTLE (Warszawa, Sala Senatorska na Zamku Królewskim, Plac Zamkowy).

Here was crowned:

1829: Nicholas I of Russia

 

Photo courtesy of Dr Jerzy Paździora

Select Bibliography

Barański M. et al.: Poczet królów i książąt polskich, Warszawa 1996

Bujak A.: Nekropolie królów i książąt polskich, Warszawa 1991

Lileyko J., Regalia polskie, Warszawa 1987

Marcinek R. et al.: Poczet władców Polski, Kraków 2003

Rożek M.: Groby królewskie na Wawelu, Kraków 2008

Rożek M., Polskie koronacje i korony, Kraków 1987

Spórna M. & Wierzbicki P.: Słownik władców Polski i pretendentów do tronu polskiego, Kraków 2003

 

Miller J., Chorągwie i flagi polskie, Warszawa 1962

Pavillons des puissances maritimes en 1819, [Paris 1819?]

Znamierowski A., Illustrated Book of Flags, London 2003

Znamierowski A., Insygnia, symbole i herby polskie, Warszawa 2003

Znamierowski A., Stworzony do chwały, Warszawa 1995