BURIAL CHURCHES OF HUNGARIAN SOVEREIGNS FROM A TO Z

 

ABASÁR (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN ABASÁR MONASTERY (Abasári monostor):

 

King SAMUEL ABA (+1044)

 

The monastery was demolished in the past.

 

 

ADMONT (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN ADMONT ABBEY (Benediktinerstift  Admont, Hauptstr.):

 

Queen ANASTASIA OF KIEV (+c. 1074/96), consort of King Andrew I

 

BUDAPEST (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE CONVENT OF THE POOR CLARES (Budapest, Klarissza apácakolostor, Kis Korona utca/Perc utca):

 

Queen ELIZABETH OF POLAND (+1380), consort of King Charles I Robert

 

The convent was demolished in the past and all what is left are the foundations.

 

 

BUDAPEST (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE DOMINICAN NUNNERY ON MARGARET ISLAND (Budapest, Margitszigeti Domonkos apácakolostor):

 

1. King STEPHEN V (+1272)

 

2. Queen ELIZABETH OF CUMANIA (+c. 1295), consort of King Stephen V

 

The nunnery was destroyed in the 16/17 th c. and only the ruins have remained.

 

 

BUDAPEST (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE MINORITES CHURCH OF ST MARY MAGDALEN (Budapest, Minorita templom/Mária Magdolna templom, Úri utca/Kapisztrán tér):

 

1. King ANDREW III (+1301)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

2. Queen FENENNA OF CUJAVIA (+1295), consort of King Andrew III

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

BUDAPEST (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN ST MATTHEW’S CHURCH (Budapest, Mátyás-templom, Szentháromság tér):

 

1. King BÉLA III (+1196)

Translated from Székesfehérvár in the 19th century.

 

2. Queen ANNE OF ANTIOCH (+1184), consort of King Béla III

Translated from Székesfehérvár in the 19th century.

 

 

BUDAPEST (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN ST SIGISMUND’S ROYAL CHAPEL (Budapest, Szent Zsigmond kápolna):

 

1. Queen CATHERINE OF PODĚBRADY (+1464), consort of King Matthew I Corvinus

 

2. Queen ANNE OF FOIX (+1506), consort of King Ulászló II

 

The chapel was destroyed in 1686 during the Siege of Buda and demolished after 1767.

 

 

CSANÁD/CENAD (RUMANIA)

BURIED IN CSANÁD ABBEY (Csanádi Apátság):

 

King LADISLAUS IV (+1290)

 

The monastery was demolished in 1514.

 

 

EGER (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN EGER CATHEDRAL (Egri Székesegyház):

 

King EMERICH (+1204)

 

The cathedral was demolished by the Turks in the 16th century, only remains exist.

 

 

EGRES/IGRIȘ (RUMANIA)

BURIED IN EGRES ABBEY (Egresi Apátság):

 

1. King ANDREW II (+1235)

 

2. Queen YOLANDE DE COURTENAY (+1233), consort of King Andrew II

 

The abbey and the tombs were demolished by the Turks in 1526.

 

ESZTERGOM (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE FRANCISCAN CHURCH (now Esztergom Cathedral, Szent István tér):

 

1. King STEPHEN III (+1172)

 

2. King BÉLA IV (+1270)

 

3. Queen MARY LASCARIS OF NICAEA (+1270), consort of King Béla IV

 

The church had been demolished by the Turks, so were the royal tombs. The present cathedral was built in the 19th century on the site of the ancient Franciscan Church.

 

 

GRAZ (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE IMPERIAL MAUSOLEUM (Graz, Kaiserliches Mausoleum, Bürgergasse):

 

King FERDINAND II (+1637)

 

 

GYULAFEHÉRVÁR/ALBA IULIA (RUMANIA)

BURIED IN THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL (Alba Iulia, Catedrala Romano-Catolica/Gyulafehérvári érseki székesegyház, Strada Mihai Viteazul):

 

1. Queen ISABELLA JAGIELLONIAN OF POLAND (+1559), consort of King John I

 

2. King JOHN II SIGISMUND (+1571)

 

LANDSHUT (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN CONVENT OF SELIGENTHAL

(Landshut, Zisterzienserinnenkloster Seligenthal, Bismarckplatz):

 

King OTTO I (+1312)

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

MADRID (SPAIN)

BURIED IN THE MONASTERY OF DISCALCED FRANCISCANS (Madrid, Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales, calle de la Misericordia):

 

Queen MARY OF SPAIN (+1603), consort of King Maximilian I

 

 

MONTE (MADEIRA-PORTUGAL)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF MONTE (Monte, Igreja Nossa Senhora do Monte, Caminho Das Babosas):

 

King CHARLES IV (+1922)

His heart was buried in Muri Abbey, Switzerland.

 

 

NAGYVÁRAD/ORADEA (RUMANIA)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF THE VÁRAD FORTRESS:

 

1. King ST LADISLAUS I (+1095)

 

2. Queen BEATRICE OF LUXEMBOURG (+1319), consort of King Charles I Robert

 

3. Queen MARY (+1395)

 

4. King SIGISMUND OF LUXEMBOURG (+1437)

 

The burial church of Várad Fortress and the royal tombs inside it were demolished by the Turks in the 17th c.

 

 

NAGYVÁRAD/ORADEA (RUMANIA)

BURIED IN THE MONASTERY OF THE VÁRAD FORTRESS (Nagyvárad, A várad-előhegyi monostor):

 

King STEPHEN II (+1131)

 

The monastery of Várad Fortress and the royal tomb inside it were demolished by the Turks in the 17th c.

 

 

NAPLES (ITALY)

BURIED IN THE CHURCH OF ST PETER (Napoli, Chiesa di San Pietro a Castello):

 

Queen ELIZABETH OF SICILY (+after 1290), consort of King Ladislaus IV

 

 

PALERMO (ITALY)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL (Cattedrale di Palermo, Via dell'Incoronazione/Via Vittorio Emanuele):

 

Queen CONSTANCE OF ARAGON (+1222), consort of King Emerich

 

 

PASSAU (GERMANY)

BURIED IN THE NIEDERNBURG CONVENT (Passau, Kloster Niedernburg, Jesuitengasse):

 

Queen GISELA OF BAVARIA (+1065), consort of King Saint Stephen I

 

 

PÉCS (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF ST PETER (Pécsi Székesegyház, Káptalan utca):

 

King PETER ORESOLO (+1046)

 

 

PILISSZENTKERESZT (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN PILISSZENTKERESZT ABBEY  (Pilisszentkereszti Apátság):

 

Queen GERTRUDE OF ANDECHS (+1213), consort of King Andrew II

 

The abbey had been demolished in 1526 by the Turks and the tomb was lost.

 

 

POBLET (SPAIN)

BURIED IN THE ROYAL ABBEY OF ST MARY (El Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet):

 

Queen BEATRICE OF NAPLES (+1508), consort of Kings Matthew I Corvinus and Ulászló II

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

PRAGUE (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF ST VITUS (Praha, chram sv. Vita):

 

1. Queen BARBARA OF CILLI (+1451), consort of King Sigismund of Luxembourg

 

2. King LADISLAUS V THE POSTHUMOUS (+1457)

 

3. King FERDINAND I (+1564)

 

4. Queen ANNA JAGIELLONIAN OF BOHEMIA (+1547), consort of King Ferdinand I

 

5. King MAXIMILIAN I (+1576)

 

6. King RUDOLPH I (+1612)

 

 

PULA (CROATIA)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION (Pula, Katedrala uznesenja Blažene Djevice Marije, Trg Sv. Tome):

 

King SALOMON (+c. 1087)

 

King's remains are buried now in a Roman sarcophagus serving as the high altar.

 

 

SALERNO (ITALY)

BURIED IN THE BASILICA OF ST MATTHEW (Salerno, Basilica Cattedrale SS. Matteo e Gregorio Magno, Via Duomo):

 

Queen MARGARET OF DURAZZO (+1412), consort of King Charles II the Little

 

 

SAN LORENZO DE EL ESCORIAL (SPAIN)

BURIED IN THE MONASTERY OF SAN LORENZO (El Monasterio de El Escorial, Avenida Juan De Borbón Y Battemberg):

 

Queen MARY OF HABSBURG (+1558), consort of King Louis II)

 

 

ST PAUL IM LAVANTTAL (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE BENEDICTINE ABBEY (Benediktinerstift St. Paul im Lavanttal, Hauptstr.):

 

Queen AGNES OF AUSTRIA (+1364), consort of King Andrew III

 

 

SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE CORONATION BASILICA  (Székesfehérvár, Koronazó-bazilika):

 

01. King ST STEPHEN I (+1038)

 

02. King KOLOMAN THE BEAUCLERC (+1116)

 

03. Queen FELICIA OF SICILY (+c. 1102), consort of King Koloman the Beauclerc

 

04. King BÉLA II THE BLIND (+1141)

 

05. Queen HELENA OF SERBIA (+1140), consort of King Béla II the Blind

 

06. King GÉZA II (+1162)

 

07. King LADISLAUS II (+1163)

 

08. King STEPHEN IV (+1165)

 

09. King LADISLAUS III (+1205)

 

10. King CHARLES I ROBERT (+1342)

 

11. Queen MARY OF SILESIA-BYTOM (+1315), consort of King Charles I Robert

 

12. King LOUIS I THE GREAT (+1382)

 

13. Queen MARGARET OF LUXEMBOURG (+1349), consort of King Louis I the Great

 

14. Queen ELIZABETH OF BOSNIA (+1387), consort of King Louis I the Great

 

15. King ALBERT OF HABSBURG (+1439)

 

16. Queen ELIZABETH OF BOHEMIA (+1442), consort of King Albert of Habsburg

 

17. King MATTHEW I CORVINUS (+1490)

 

18. King ULÁSZLÓ II REX BENE (+1516)

 

19. Queen ANNE OF FOIX (+1506), consort of King Ulászló

 

20. King LOUIS II (+1526)

 

21. King JOHN I (+1540)

 

 

The basilica and the royal tombs were demolished by the Turks in 1601.

 

 

SZEKSZÁRD (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN SZEKSZÁRD ABBEY (Szekszárd Apátság):

 

King BÉLA I (+1063)

The Abbey had been demolished in the past and only remains of the foundation exist.

 

 

TIHANY (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN TIHANY ABBEY (Tihanyi Apátság, I. András tér):

 

King ANDREW I (+1060)

 

TYRE (LEBANON)

BURIED IN TYRE CATHEDRAL:

 

Queen MARGARET OF FRANCE (+1197), consort of King Béla III

 

The Cathedral of Tyre was demolished following the Muslim conquest of the city in the Middle Ages.

 

 

VÁC (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN VÁC CATHEDRAL

(Váci Székesegyház):

 

King GÉZA I (+1077)

King Geza I had been buried in a cathedral which was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century. A new cathedral was later built nearby.

 

VARNA (BULGARIA)

MAUSOLEUM OF KING LADISLAUS OF VARNA (Varna, Mavzolei na Kral Vladislav Varnenchik, bul. Jan Hunyadi):

 

King ULÁSZLÓ I (+1444)

 

The body of King Ulászló I (Ladislaus I) had never been found following the disastrous Battle of Varna. At the initiative of Petar Dimkov the Mausoleum was built in 1934/35 on the battlefield where the king had perished. The Skorpil brothers, 19th c. Czech historians claimed, however, that the king had been buried in the Church of St Panagia in Varna. A cenotaph in his memory was raised in the 19th c. in the Cathedral of Kraków (Poland).

 

 

VESZPRÉM (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN THE CATHEDRAL OF ST MICHAEL (Veszprém, Szent Mihály Székesegyház, Vár utca):

 

Queen ADELAIDE OF SWABIA (+1079/90), consort of King Ladislaus I

The tomb has not been preserved.

 

 

VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE CAPUCHIN CHURCH (Wien, Kapuzinerkirche, Neuer Markt):

 

01. King MATTHEW II (+1619)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

02. Queen ANNA OF TYROL (+1618), consort of King Matthew II

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

03. King FERDINAND IV (+1654)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

04. King FERDINAND III (+1657)

 

05. Queen MARIA ANNA OF SPAIN (+1646), consort of King Ferdinand III

 

06. Queen MARIA LEOPOLDINA OF TYROL (+1649), consort of King Ferdinand III

 

07. Queen ELEANOR MAGDALEN OF MANTUA-NEVERS-GONZAGA (+1686), consort of King Ferdinand III

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

08. King LEOPOLD I (+1705)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

09. Queen MARGARET THERESA OF SPAIN (+1673), consort of King Leopold I

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

10. Queen ELEANOR MAGDALEN OF THE PALATINATE-NEUBURG (+1720), consort of King Leopold I

 

11. King JOSEPH I (+1711)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

12. King CHARLES III (+1740)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

13. Queen ELIZABETH CHRISTINA OF BRUNSWICK-WOLFENBÜTTEL (+1750), consort of King Charles II

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

14. Queen MARIA THERESA (+1780)

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

15. Emperor FRANCIS I STEPHEN (+1765), consort of Queen Maria Theresa

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

16. King JOSEPH II (+1790)

 

17. King LEOPOLD II (+1792)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

18. Queen MARIA LODOVICA OF SICILY (+1792), consort of King Leopold II

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

19. King FRANCIS I (+1835)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

20. Queen MARIA THERESA OF NAPLES-SICILY (+1807), consort of King Francis I

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

21. Queen MARIA LODOVICA OF MODENA (+1816), consort of King Francis I

Her heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

22. Queen CAROLINE AUGUSTA OF BAVARIA (+1873), consort of King Francis I

 

23. King FERDINAND V THE GOOD (+1875)

His heart was buried in the Augustinian Church in Vienna.

 

24. Queen MARIA ANNA OF SARDINIA (+1884), consort of King Ferdinand V

 

25. King FRANCIS JOSEPH I (+1916)

 

26. Queen ELIZABETH OF BAVARIA (+1898), consort of King Francis Joseph I

 

27. Queen ZITA OF BOURBON-PARMA (+1989), consort of King Charles III

Her heart was buried in Muri Abbey, Switzerland.

 

28. King OTTO II (+2011), Otto von Habsburg, nominal King of Hungary 1922-1946

His heart was buried in Pannonhalma Abbey, Hungary.

 

 

 

VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE DOMINICAN CHURCH (Wien, Dominikanerkirche, Postgasse):

 

Queen CLAUDIA FELICITY OF TIROL (+1676), consort of King Leopold I

Her heart was buried in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE SALESIAN CONVENT (Wien, Salesianerinnenkloster der Heimsuchung Maria, Rennweg):

 

Queen WILHELMINA AMALIA OF BRUNSWICK-LUNEBURG (+1742), consort of King Joseph I

Her heart was buried in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN THE SCOTTISH CHURCH (Wien, Schottenkirche, Freyung):

 

Queen AGNES OF AUSTRIA (+1182), consort of King Stephen III

 

 

VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BURIED IN ST STEPHEN’S CATHEDRAL (Wien, Stephansdom-Herzogsgruft, Stephansplatz):

 

Queen ELEANOR OF MANTUA (+1655), consort of King Ferdinand II

Her heart was buried in the Imperial Mausoleum in Graz (Austria).

 

 

VISEGRÁD (HUNGARY)

BURIED IN ST ANDREW’S BENEDICTINE ABBEY (Visegrád, Szent Andras Bences Apátság):

 

King CHARLES II THE SHORT (+1386)

 

The abbey had been demolished in the 16th century and the tomb was lost.

 

 

VYŠŠI BROD (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY (Vyšší Brod, cisterciácký klášter, ul. Míru):

 

Queen VIOLA ELIZABETH OF CIESZYN (+1317), consort of King Wenceslaus I

 

ZBRASLAV (CZECH REPUBLIC)

BURIED IN THE ABBEY CHURCH OF OUR LADY (Zbraslavský klášter, kostel Panny Marie):

 

King WENCESLAUS I (+1306)

 

The tomb was lost in the 18th century during the demolition of the church.

 

LIST OF HUNGARIAN SOVEREIGNS 889-1946

 

DUCHY OF HUNGARY TO 1000:

HOUSE OF ÁRPÁD (Árpád dinasztia)

889-907: ÁRPÁD

Father: Almos.

His issue who reigned: ZOLTAN (+c. 945).

Died in 907. Burial place unknown.

 

 

907-c. 945: ZOLTAN

Father: Arpad.

His issue who reigned: TAKSONY (*c. 905,+c. 972). Burial place unknown.

 

 

c. 945-955: FAJSZ

Born in c. 945.

Father: Jutas.

Died in c. 955. Burial place unknown.

 

 

c. 955-972: TAKSONY

Born in c. 905.

Father: Duke Zoltan of Hungary.

Married.

His issue who reigned: GÉZA (*c. 945,+997).

Died in c. 972. Burial place unknown.

 

 

c. 972-997: GÉZA

Born in c. 945.

Father: Duke Taksony of Hungary.

Married in 997 Princess SAROLTA of Transylvania (+after 988).

His issue who reigned:

-ST STEPHEN I (*969/75,+1038),

-a daughter (Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Samuel Aba).

Died in 997. Burial place unknown.

 

 

997-1000: SAINT STEPHEN I (Szent István; King from 1000)

 

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY 1000-1918:

HOUSE OF ÁRPÁD (Árpád dinasztia)

1000-1038: SAINT STEPHEN I (Szent István)

Born in c. 969/75 at Esztergom.

Father: Duke Geza of Hungary. Mother: Duchess Sarolta of Transylvania.

Married in 996 Princess GISELA of Bavaria (*977/85,+1065).

He was crowned in 1001 at Esztergom.

Died in 1038 at Székesfehérvár.

Buried at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

His Queen Gisela was buried at Niedernburg Convent in Passau, Germany.

 

 

1038-1041 and 1044-1046: PETER ORSEOLO (Orseolo Péter)*

Born in 1011 in Venice.

Father: Doge Otone Oresolo of Venice. Mother: Princess Maria Ilona of Hungary.

Married an unknown woman.

He was crowned in 1044 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Deposed in 1041. Regained his throne in 1044. Abdicated in 1046.

Died in c. 1046 at Székesfehérvár.

Buried at Pécs Cathedral.

 

* not a member of the dynasty

 

 

1041-1044: SAMUEL ABA (Aba Sámuel)

Born in c. 990.

Father: Duke Geza of Hungary. Mother: Duchess Adelaide of Poland.

Married in 1005/10 a princess of Hungary, daughter of Duke Géza of Hungary.

Died in 1044 in the Battle of Menfö.

Buried at Abasár Monastery (demolished).

 

 

1046-1060: ANDREW I (I. András)

Born in c. 1014.

Father: Prince Basil (Vazula) of Hungary. Mother: ?

Married firstly a Polish princess.

Married secondly in c. 1039 Princess ANASTASIA of Kiev (*c. 1021/22,+c. 1074/96).

He was crowned in 1047 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Adelaide (*c. 1040,+1062; Duchess of Bohemia; daughter of Anastasia),

-SALOMON (*1052,+c. 1087; son of Anastasia).

Died in 1060 at Zirc.

Buried at Tihany Abbey. His Queen Anastasia was buried in Admont Abbey, Styria (Austria).

 

 

1060-1063: BÉLA I

Born in c. 1016.

Father: Prince Basil (Vazula) of Hungary. Mother: ?

Married in 1039/42 a princess of Poland, daughter of King Mieszko II (Adelaide?).

He was crowned in 1061 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-GÉZA I (*1044/45,+1077),

-ST LADISLAUS I (*c. 1040,+1095),

-Helen (+after 1091; Queen of Croatia),

-Maria (*c. 1053/55,+after 1081; Empress of Byzantium).

Died in 1063.

Buried at Szekszárd Abbey (demolished).

 

 

1063-1074: SALOMON (Salamon)

Born in 1052.

Father: King Andrew I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Anastasia of Kiev.

Married in 1063 Princess JUDITH of Germany (*1054 Goslar,+after 1105 Germany).

He was crowned in 1058 and again with his consort Judith in 1063 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Deposed in 1074 and exiled in Austria.

Died in c. 1087 in the Balkans.

Buried in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Pula, Croatia.

 

 

1074-1077: GÉZA I

Born in 1044/45.

Father: King Béla I of Hungary.

Married firstly c. 1062 Sophie von Looz (+c. 1065).

Married secondly in 1065/75 Princess SYNADENE of Byzantium (+after 1077).

He was crowned in 1074 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-KOLOMAN THE BEAUCLERC (*1065/70,+1116),

-Álmos (*c. 1068,+1127; King of Croatia).

Died in 1077.

Buried at Vác Cathedral (demolished).



1077-1095: SAINT LADISLAUS I (Szent László)

Born in c. 1040 in Poland.

Father: King Béla I of Hungary.

Married firstly unnamed woman.

Married secondly in 1077 Princess ADELAIDE of Swabia (+1079/90).

He was crowned in 1077 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned: Piroska, or Irene (+1134; Empress of Byzantium).

Died in 1095 in Nitra.

Buried firstly at Samogyvár Abbey, later reburied at Nagyvárad (Oradea), Transylvania (demolished).

His Queen Adelaide of Swabia was buried in Veszprém Cathedral (no tomb).

 

 

1095-1116: KOLOMAN THE BEAUCLERC (Kálmán; King of Croatia)

Born in 1065/70.

Father: King Géza I of Hungary. Mother: Princess Sophie von Looz.

Married firstly in 1097 Felicia of Sicily (+c. 1102).

Married secondly in 1104 Princess Euphemia of Kiev (+1139). Repudiated before 1112.

He was crowned in 1095 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned: STEPHEN II (*1101,+1131; son of Felicia).

Died in 1116.

Buried with his Queen Felicia of Sicily in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

 

 

1116-1131: STEPHEN II (II. István; King of Croatia)

Born in 1101.

Father: King Koloman the Beauclerc of Hungary. Mother: Queen Felicia of Sicily.

Married firstly CRISTIANA of Capua. Repudiated before 1121 (burial place unknown).

Married secondly in 1121 ADELAIDE of Riedenburg (burial place unknown).

He was crowned in 1114 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1131 at Várad (Nagyvárad).

Buried in Váradelöhegy Monastery at Nagyvárad (now Oradea), Transylvania (demolished).

 

 

1131-1141: BÉLA II THE BLIND (II. Vak Béla; King of Croatia)

Born in 1108/10.

Father: King Álmos of Croatia. Mother: Queen Predslava of Kiev.

Married in 1127 HELENA of Serbia (*after 1109,+after 1146).

He was crowned in 1131 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-GÉZA II (*1130,+1162),

-LADISLAUS II (*1131,+1163),

-STEPHEN IV (*c. 1133,+1165);

-Elizabeth (*c. 1128,+1151/54; Duchess of Poland).

Died in 1141.

Buried with his Queen Helena of Serbia at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

 

 

1141-1162: GÉZA II (King of Croatia)

Born in 1130 at Tolna.

Father: King Béla II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Helen of Serbia.

Married in 1146 Princess EUPHROSINA of Kiev (+c. 1193 probably in Jerusalem).

He was crowned in 1141 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-STEPHEN III (*1147,+1172),

-BÉLA III (*c. 1148,+1196)

-Elizabeth (*1144/45,+after 1190; Duchess of Bohemia),

-Ilona (*c. 1158,+1199; Duchess of Austria).

Died in 1162.

Buried at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

 

1162-1172: STEPHEN III (III. István; King of Croatia)

Born in 1147.

Father: King Géza II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Euphrosina of Kiev.

Married firstly in 1167 a princess of Halicz. Repudiated in 1168.

Married secondly in 1168 AGNES of Austria (c. 1154,+1182).

He was crowned in 1161 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1172 at Esztergom.

Buried in Esztergom Cathedral (formerly the Franciscan Church). Demolished.

His consort Queen Agnes of Austria was buried in the Scottish Church in Vienna.

 

 

1162-1163: LADISLAUS II (II. László; King of Croatia)

Born in 1131.

Father: King Béla II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Helen of Serbia.

Married Princess Judith of Poland (*c. 1132,+1172/74). Marriage dissolved before 1148.

He was crowned in 1161 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1163.

Buried in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

 

 

1163-1165: STEPHEN IV (IV. István; King of Croatia)

Born in c. 1133.

Father: King Béla II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Helen of Serbia.

Married in 1156 Princess MARIA of Byzantium (*c. 1144,+1190 Constantinople; burial place unknown).

He was crowned in 1162 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1165 at Zimony (Zemun).

Buried in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

 

 

1172-1196: BÉLA III (King of Croatia)

Born in c. 1148.

Father: King Géza II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Euphrosina of Kiev.

Married firstly in 1172 ANNE of Antioch (+1184).

Married secondly in 1186 Princess MARGARET of France, dowager Queen of England (*1158,+1197 Acre).

He was crowned in 1174 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-EMERICH (*1174,+1204; son of Anne),

-Margaret (*1175,+after 1223; Empress of Byzantium; daughter of Anne),

-ANDREW II (*1176,+1235; son of Anne),

-Constance (*c. 1180,+1240; Queen of Bohemia; daughter of Anne).

Died in 1196 at Székesfehérvár.

Buried firstly with his Queen Anne in Székesfehérvár Basilica.

In 1860 their tomb was transferred to St Matthew's Church in Buda. His second consort Queen Margaret was buried in Tyre Cathedral (modern Lebanon; demolished).

 

 

1196-1204: EMERICH (Imre; King of Croatia)

Born in 1174.

Father: King Béla III of Hungary. Mother: Queen Anne of Antioch.

Married in 1198 Princess CONSTANCE of Aragon (*1179,+1222 Catania).

He was crowned in 1185 and again in 1196 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned: LADISLAUS III (*1199,+1205).

Died in 1204.

Buried in Eger Cathedral (demolished).

His Queen Constance of Aragon was buried in Palermo Cathedral, Sicily.

 

 

1204-1205: LADISLAUS III (III. László; King of Croatia)

Born in 1199.

Father: King Emerich of Hungary. Mother: Queen Constance of Aragon.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1204 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1205.

Buried at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

 

 

1205-1235: ANDREW II (II. András; King of Croatia)

Born in 1176.

Father: King Béla III of Hungary. Mother: Queen Anne of Antioch.

Married firstly before 1203 GERTRUDE of Andechs (+1213).

Married secondly in 1215 YOLANDE de Courtenay (*c. 1194,+1233).

Married thirdly in 1234 at Székesfehérvár BEATRICE d'Este (*1215,+1245).

He was crowned with his consort Gertrude of Andechs in 1205 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Anna Maria (*1204,+1237; Czarina of Bulgaria; daughter of Gertrude),

-BÉLA IV (*1206,+1270; son of Gertrude),

-Kálmán/Koloman (*1208,+c. 1241; Duke of Halicz/Galicia; son of Gertrude),

-Andrew (*1210/12,+1234; King of Halicz/Galicia; son of Gertrude),

-Yolande (c. 1215,+1251; Queen of Aragon; daughter of Yolande).

Died in 1235.

Buried with his second consort Queen Yolande at Egres Abbey (demolished).

His first consort Queen Gertrude was buried at Pilisszentkereszt Abbey (demolished).

 

 

1235-1270: BÉLA IV (King of Croatia)

Born in 1206.

Father: King Andrew II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Gertrude of Andechs.

Married in 1218 Princess MARY Lascaris of Nicaea (*c. 1206 Nicaea,+1270).

He was crowned in 1207 in St Peter's Church and again with his consort Mary of Nicaea in 1235 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-St Kinga (*1234,+1292; Duchess of Poland),

-Constance (*1237; Queen of Halicz/Galicia),

-STEPHEN V (*1239,+1272).

Died in 1270.

Buried with his Queen Mary of Nicaea in the Franciscan Church at Esztergom (demolished).

 

1270-1272: STEPHEN V (V. István; King of Croatia)

Born in 1239 in Buda.

Father: King Béla IV of Hungary. Mother: Queen Mary of Nicaea.

Married in 1253 ELIZABETH of Cumania (*1240,+c. 1295).

He was crowned with his consort Elizabeth of Cumania in 1266 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Catherine (*c. 1256,+after 1314; Queen of Serbia),

-Maria (*c. 1257,+1323; Queen of Naples),

-Elizabeth (*1255,+1323; Queen of Serbia),

-Anna (*c. 1260,+c. 1281; Empress of Byzantium),

-LADISLAUS IV THE CUMANIAN (*1262,+1290).

Died in 1272 in Buda (murdered).

Buried with his Queen Elizabeth in the Dominican Nunnery on Margaret Island, now Budapest (demolished).

 

 

1272-1290: LADISLAUS IV THE CUMANIAN (IV. László; King of Croatia)

Born in 1262.

Father: King Stephen V of Hungary. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Hungary.

Married in 1272 Princess ELIZABETH of Sicily (*1261,+after 1290 Naples).

He was crowned with his consort Elizabeth in 1272 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1290 at Körösszeg (murdered).

Buried in Csanád (Cenad, now Rumania). Demolished.

His Queen Elizabeth was buried in St Peter's Monastery in Naples.

 

 

1290-1301: ANDREW III (III. András; King of Croatia)

Born in c. 1265 in Venice.

Father: Duke Stephen of Slavonia. Mother: Duchess Catherine Tommasina Morosini.

Married firstly in 1290 Princess FENENNA of Kuyavia (*c. 1276,+1295). Burial place unknown.

Married secondly in 1296 in Vienna Duchess AGNES of Austria (*1281 Vienna,+1364 Königsfelden).

He was crowned in 1290 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His second consort Agnes of Austria was crowned in 1296 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1301 at Buda (now Budapest).

Buried in the Minorites Church in Buda (no tomb).

His second consort Queen Agnes was buried in the Benedictine Abbey in St Paul im Lavanttal, Austria.

 

 

HOUSE OF PŘEMYSLID (Přemysl dinasztia)

1301-1305: WENCESLAUS I (I. Vencel; King of Bohemia and Poland as Wencelaus III)

Born in 1289 in Prague.

Father: King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. Mother: Queen Judith of Bohemia.

Married in 1305 Princess VIOLET ELIZABETH of Cieszyn (*c. 1291,+1317).

He was crowned in 1301 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1306 in Olomouc, Moravia (stabbed).

Buried firstly at the Cathedral in Olomouc.

In 1326 his remains were reburied in the Church of Our Lady in the Cistercian Abbey in Zbraslav near Prague (demolished).

His Queen Violet Elizabeth of Cieszyn was buried in the Cistercian Monastery in Vyšsí Brod, Bohemia.

 

 

HOUSE OF WITTELSBACH (Wittelsbach ház)

1305-1307: OTTO I/BÉLA V (I. Ottó/V. Béla)

Born in 1261 at Burghausen.

Father: Duke Henry of Lower Bavaria. Mother: Princess Elizabeth of Hungary.

Married firstly in 1270 in Vienna Catherine of Austria (*1256,+1282 Landshut).

Married secondly in 1308 at Straubing Princess Agnes of Głogów (*1293/96,+1361).

He was crowned in 1305 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár. Deposed in 1307.

Died in exile in 1312 at Landshut, Bavaria.

Buried with his both consorts at Seligenthal Abbey, Landshut, Bavaria (no tomb).

 

 

HOUSE OF ANJOU (Anjou dinasztia)

1307-1342: CHARLES I ROBERT (I. Károly Robert; King of Croatia)

Born in 1288 in Naples.

Father: Prince Charles Martell of Naples. Mother: Princess Clemence of Austria.

Married firstly in 1306 Princess MARY of Silesia-Bytom (+1315 Temesvár).

Married secondly in 1318 Princess BEATRICE of Luxembourg (*1305,+1319).

Married thirdly in 1320 Princess ELIZABETH of Poland (*1305,+1380 Buda).

He was crowned in 1309 and in 1310 at St Matthew's Church in Buda and in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His third consort Elizabeth of Poland was crowned in 1320 in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-LOUIS I THE GREAT (*1326,+1382; son of Elizabeth),

-Andrew (*1327,+1345; married Queen Joan I of Naples; son of Elizabeth).

Died in 1342 at Visegrád.

Buried with his first consort Queen Mary of Silesia in at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

His second consort Queen Beatrice of Luxembourg was buried the Church of Várad Fortress in Nagyvárad, Transylvania (demolished).

His third consort Queen Elizabeth of Poland was buried in the Convent of Poor Clares in Buda (demolished).

 

 

1342-1382: LOUIS I THE GREAT (I. Nagy Lajos; King of Poland and Croatia)

Born in 1326 in Visegrad.

Father: King Charles I Robert of Hungary. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Poland.

Married firstly in c. 1345 Princess MARGARET of Luxembourg (*1335,+1349).

Married secondly in 1353 in Cracow ELIZABETH of Bosnia (*c. 1340,+1387 Dalmatia).

He was crowned in 1342 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-MARY (*1371,+1395; daughter of Elizabeth),

-St Hedvig (*1374,+1399; Queen of Poland; daughter of Elizabeth).

Died in 1382 in Trnava (now Slovakia).

Buried with his first Queen Margaret of Luxembourg at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár (demolished).

His second consort Queen Elizabeth of Bosnia was firstly buried in the Church of St Chrysogonus at Zadar, Dalmatia. In 1390 her body was translated and reburied in the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár, Hungary (demolished).

 

 

1382-1385 and 1386-1387: MARY (Queen of Croatia)

Born in 1371.

Father: King Louis I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Bosnia.

Married in 1385 Emperor SIGISMUND of Luxembourg.

She was crowned in 1382 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1395 in Buda.

Buried with her consort King Sigismund of Luxembourg in the Church of Várad Fortress in Nagyvárad, Transylvania (demolished).

 

 

1385-1386: CHARLES II THE SHORT (II. Kis Károly; King of Croatia and Naples)

Born in 1345.

Father: Lodovico di Gravina. Mother: Margherita di Corigliano.

Married in 1369 Princess MARGARET of Durazzo (*1347,+1412 Mela).

He was crowned in 1385 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Ladislaus (*1376/77,+1414; King of Naples),

-Joan II (*1373,+1435; Queen of Naples).

Died in 1386 at Visergrád (murdered).

Buried in St Andrew's Abbey at Visegrád (demolished).

His Queen Margaret of Durazzo was buried in Salerno Cathedral.

 

 

HOUSE OF LUXEMBOURG (Luxemburgi dinasztia)

1387-1437: SIGISMUND OF LUXEMBOURG (Luxemburgi Zsigmond; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Elector of Brandenburg)

Born in 1368 in Nuremberg.

Father: King Charles I/IV of Bohemia. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Pomerania.

Married firstly in 1385 Queen MARY of Hungary (*c. 1371,+1395).

Married secondly in 1408 BARBARA of Cilli (*c. 1390/95,+1451).

He was crowned in 1387 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His consort Barbara was crowned in 1408 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned: Elizabeth (*1409,+1442; Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary; daughter of Barbara).

Died in 1437 at Znojmo, Moravia.

Buried with his first consort Queen Mary of Hungary in the Church of Várad Fortress in Nagyvárad, Transylvania (demolished).

His second consort Queen Barbara of Cilli was buried in the Cathedral of St Vitus in Prague.

 

 

HOUSE OF HABSBURG (Habsburg dinasztia)

1437-1439: ALBERT OF HABSBURG (Duke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Croatia, German king)

Born in 1397 in Vienna.

Father: Duke Albert IV of Austria. Mother: Duchess Joanna Sophia of Bavaria.

Married in 1421 in Prague Princess ELIZABETH of Bohemia and Hungary (*c. 1409 Prague,+1442 Györ, Hungary).

He was crowned with his consort Elizabeth in 1437 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Elizabeth (*1436,+1505; Queen of Poland);

-LADISLAUS V THE POSTHUMOUS (*1440,+1457).

Died in 1439 at Neszmély near Esztergom, Hungary.

Buried with his consort Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia and Hungary in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár, Hungary (demolished).

 

 

HOUSE OF JAGIELLO (Jagelló dinasztia)

1440-1444: ULÁSZLÓ I OF VARNA (Varnai Ulászló; King of Poland as Ladislaus III, King of Croatia)

Born in 1424 in Cracow.

Father: King Ladislaus II of Poland. Mother: Queen Sophia of Holszany.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1440 at the Coronation Basilica in Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1444 on battlefield near Varna, Bulgaria. King's head was taken by Turks to Brussa in Asia Minor.

A mausoleum in Varna and a cenotaph in Cracow's Royal Basilica were erected in king's memory

but his decapitated body was never found.

 

 

HOUSE OF HABSBURG (Habsburg dinasztia)

1444-1457: LADISLAUS V THE POSTHUMOUS (V. László; King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1440 at Komárom.

Father: King Albert of Habsburg. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia and Hungary.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1440 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1457 in Prague.

Buried in the Cathedral of St Vitus in Prague.

 

 

HOUSE OF HUNYADI (Hunyadi dinasztia)

1458-1490: MATTHEW I CORVINUS (I. Matyas; King of Croatia)

Born in 1443 at Kolozsvár (Cluj), Transylvania.

Father: János Hunyadi of Transylvania. Mother: Erzsébet Szilágyi.

Married firstly in 1461 in Buda Princess CATHERINE of Poděbrady (*1449,+1464).

Married secondly in 1476 in Buda Princess BEATRICE of Naples (*1457 Capua,+1508 Ischia).

He was crowned in 1464 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His second consort Beatrice of Naples was crowned in 1476 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1490 in Vienna.

Buried in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár (demolished).

His first consort Queen Catherine was buried in St Sigismund's Church in Buda (demolished).

His second consort Queen Beatrice was firstly buried in the Monastery of San Domenico in Naples. Later she was translated and reburied in the Cistercian Abbey at Poblet, Spain (no tomb).

 

 

HOUSE OF JAGIELLO (Jagelló dinasztia)

1490-1516: ULÀSZLÓ II REX BENE (II. ULászló Dobzse; King of Bohemia as Ladislaus II, King of Croatia)

Born in 1456 in Cracow, Poland.

Father: King Casimir IV of Poland. Mother: Queen Elizabeth of Austria.

Married firstly (by proxy only) in 1476 in Frankfurt Barbara of Brandenburg (*1464 Ansbach,+1515 Ansbach). Never married in person.

Married secondly in 1490 Dowager Queen of Hungary BEATRICE of Naples (*1457 Capua,+1508 Ischia).

Both marriages were annulled in 1500 by the Pope.

Married thirdly in 1502 in Buda Countess ANNE of Foix (*after 1469,+1506).

He was crowned in 1490 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His consort Anne of Foix was crowned in 1502 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Anna (*1503,+1547; Roman Empress and Queen of Bohemia and Hungary; daughter of Anne),

-LOUIS II (*1506,+1526; son of Anne).

Died in 1516 in Buda.

Buried with his Queen Anne of Foix in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár (demolished).

His first consort Barbara of Brandenburg was buried in the Abbey Church in Heilsbronn, Germany.

His second consort Queen Beatrice was firstly buried in the Monastery of San Domenico in Naples. Later she was translated and reburied in the Cistercian Abbey at Poblet, Spain (no tomb). His third consort Queen Anne of Foix was buried in St Sigismund's Church in Buda (demolished).

 

 

1516-1526: LOUIS II (II. Lajos; King of Bohemia as Louis I, King of Croatia)

Born in 1506 in Prague.

Father: King Ulászló II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Anne of Foix.

Married in 1522 in Buda Archduchess MARY of Habsburg (*1505 Brussels,+1558 Cigales near Valladolid).

He was crowned in 1516 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

Died in 1526 at the Battle of Mohács.

Buried in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár, Hungary (demolished).

His consort Queen Mary was buried in the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain.

 

 

HOUSE OF SZAPOLYAI (Szapolyai dinasztia)

1526-1540: JOHN I (János Szapolyai; King of Croatia)

Born in 1487 at Szepesvár.

Father: Count István of Szepes, Duke of Transylvania. Mother: Princess Hedvig (Jadwiga) of Cieszyn.

Married in 1539 Princess ISABELLA of Poland-Lithuania (*1519 Cracow,+1559 Gyulafehérvár).

He was crowned in 1526 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His consort Isabella of Poland was crowned in 1539 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned: JOHN II SIGISMUND (*1540,+1571).

Died in 1540 at Szászsebes.

Buried in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár (demolished).

His Queen Isabella of Poland was buried in the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Gyulafehérvár.

 

 

1540-1570: JOHN II SIGISMUND (János Zsigmond Szapolyai; Prince of Transylvania)

Born in 1540 in Buda.

Father: King John I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Isabella Jagiellonian of Poland-Lithuania.

Unmarried.

He was never crowned.

Abdicated in 1570.

Died in 1571 at Gyulafehérvár, Transylvania.

Buried in the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia, now Rumania).

 

 

HOUSE OF HABSBURG (Habsburg dinasztia)

1526-1564: FERDINAND I (Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1503 at Alcala de Henares, Spain.

Father: King Philip I the Fair of Castile. Mother: Queen Joan the Mad of Castile.

Married in 1521 at Linz Princess ANNA Jagiellonian of Bohemia and Hungary (*1503 Buda,+1547 Prague).

He was crowned with his consort Anna Jagiellonian in 1527 in the Coronation Basilica at Székesfehérvár.

His issue who reigned:

-Elizabeth (*1526,+1545; Queen of Poland),

-MAXIMILIAN I (*1527,+1576),

-Anna (*1528,+1590; Electress of Bavaria),

-Catherine (*1533,+1572; Queen of Poland),

-Charles II (*1540,+1590; Archduke of Inner Austria).

Died in 1564 in Vienna.

Buried with his Queen Anna Jagiellonian in the Cathedral of St Vitus in Prague.

 

 

1564-1576: MAXIMILIAN I

(I. Miksa; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1527 in Vienna.

Father: King Ferdinand I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Anna Jagiellonian of Bohemia and Hungary.

Married in 1548 at Valladolid, Spain Princess MARY of Spain (*1528 Madrid,+1603 Villa Monte, Spain).

He was crowned with his consort Mary of Spain in 1563 in St Martin's Cathedral at Bratislava (Pozsony).

His issue who reigned:

-Anna (*1549,+1580; Queen of Spain),

-RUDOLPH I (*1552,+1612),

-Elizabeth (*1554,+1592; Queen of France),

-MATTHEW II (*1557,+1619).

Died in 1576 in Regensburg.

Buried in St Vitus' Cathedral in Prague.

His consort Queen Mary of Spain was buried in the Church of St Clara (Discalced Franciscans) in Madrid, Spain.

 

 

1576-1608: RUDOLPH I

(I. Rudolf; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1552 in Vienna.

Father: King Maximilian I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Mary of Spain.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1572 in St Martin's Cathedral at Bratislava (Pozsony).

Deposed in 1608.

Died in 1612 in Prague.

Buried in St Vitus' Cathedral in Prague.

 

 

1608-1619: MATTHEW II

(II. Matyas; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1557 in Vienna.

Father: King Maximilian I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Mary of Spain.

Married in 1611 in Vienna Archduchess ANNA of Tyrol (*1585 Innsbruck,+1618 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1608 and his consort Anna of Tyrol in 1613, both in St Martin's Cathedral at Bratislava (Pozsony).

Died in 1619 in Vienna.

Buried with his consort Queen Anna of Tyrol in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1619-1637: FERDINAND II

(Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1578 in Graz.

Father: Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria. Mother: Archduchess Maria of Bavaria.

Married firstly in 1600 in Graz Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria (*1574 Munich,+1616 Graz).

Married secondly in 1622 in Innsbruck Princess ELEANOR Gonzaga of Mantua (*1598 Mantua,+1655 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1618 and his second consort Eleanor of Mantua in 1622 both in St Martin's Cathedral at Bratislava (Pozsony).

His issue who reigned:

-FERDINAND III (*1608,+1657; son of Maria Anna),

-Maria Anna (*1610,+1665; Electress of Bavaria; daughter of Maria Anna),

-Cecilia Renata (*1611,+1644; Queen of Poland; daughter of Maria Anna).

Died in 1637 in Vienna.

Buried in the Imperial Mausoleum at Graz with his first consort Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria.

His second consort Queen Eleanor of Mantua was buried in St Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna.

 

 

1637-1657: FERDINAND III

(Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1608 in Graz.

Father: King Ferdinand II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Maria Anna of Bavaria.

Married firstly in 1631 in Vienna Princess MARIA ANNA of Spain (*1608 Escorial,+1646 Linz).

Married secondly in 1648 in Linz Archduchess MARIA LEOPOLDINA of Tyrol (*1632 Innsbruck,+1649 Vienna).

Married thirdly in 1651 in Vienna Princess ELEANOR Gonzaga of Mantua (*1630 Mantua,+1686 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1625 at the Church of the Blessed Virgin in Sopron.

His first and third consorts were crowned respectively in 1638 and 1655 at the Church of the Blessed Virgin in Sopron.

His issue who reigned:

-FERDINAND IV (*1633,+1654; son of Maria Anna),

-Maria Anna (*1635,+1696; Queen of Spain; daughter of Maria Anna),

-LEOPOLD I (*1640,+1705; son of Maria Anna),

-Eleanor (*1653,+1697; Queen of Poland; daughter of Eleanor).

Died in 1657 in Vienna.

Buried with his three queens in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1647-1654: FERDINAND IV (German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia)

Born in 1633 in Vienna.

Father: King Ferdinand III of Hungary. Mother: Queen Maria Anna of Spain.

Unmarried.

He was crowned in 1646 at St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

Died in 1654 in Vienna.

Buried in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1655-1705: LEOPOLD I

(I. Lipót; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1640 in Vienna.

Father: King Ferdinand III of Hungary. Mother: Queen Maria Anna of Spain.

Married firstly in 1666 in Vienna Princess MARGARET THERESA of Spain (*1651 Madrid,+1673 Vienna).

Married secondly in 1673 in Vienna Archduchess CLAUDIA FELICITY of Tyrol (*1653 Innsbruck,+1676 Vienna).

Married thirdly in 1676 in Vienna Princess ELEANOR MAGDALEN of Palatinate-Neuburg (*1655 Düsseldorf,+1720 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1655 at St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

His third consort Eleanor Magdalen was crowned in 1681 in the Church of the Blessed Virgin at Sopron.

His issue who reigned:

-Maria Antonia (*1669,+1692; Electress of Bavaria; daughter of Margaret Theresa),

-JOSEPH I (*1678,+1711; son of Eleanor Magdalen),

-Maria Anna (*1683,+1754; Queen of Portugal; daughter of Eleanor Magdalen),

-CHARLES III (*1685,+1740; son of Eleanor Magdalen).

Died in 1705 in Vienna.

Buried with his first and third consort in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

His second consort Queen Claudia Felicity was buried in the Dominican Church in Vienna.

 

 

1705-1711: JOSEPH I

(I. József; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia, Croatia, Naples and Sicily, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1678 in Vienna.

Father: King Leopold I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Eleanor Magdalen of Palatinate-Neuburg.

Married in 1699 in Vienna Princess WILHELMINA AMALIA of Brunswick-Lüneburg (*1673 Lüneburg,+1742 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1687 at St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

His issue who reigned:

-Maria Josepha (*1699,+1757; Queen of Poland, Electress of Saxony),

-Maria Amalia (*1701,+1756; Electress of Bavaria).

Died in 1711 in Vienna.

Buried in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

His consort Queen Wilhelmina Amalia was buried in the Convent of Salesian Nuns in Vienna.

 

 

1711-1740: CHARLES III (III. Károly; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia, Croatia, Naples and Sicily, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Parma)

Born in 1685 in Vienna.

Father: King Leopold I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Eleanor Magdalen of Palatinate-Neuburg.

Married in 1708 in Barcelona Princess ELIZABETH CHRISTINA of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (*1691 Wolfenbüttel,+1750 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1712 at St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

His issue who reigned: MARIA THERESA (*1717,+1780).

Died in 1740 in Vienna.

Buried with his consort Queen Elizabeth Christina in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1740-1780: MARIA THERESA (Mária Terézia; Queen of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Parma)

Born in 1717 in Vienna.

Father: King Charles III of Hungary. Mother: Queen Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

Married in 1736 in Vienna Duke FRANCIS STEPHEN of Lorraine, later Emperor Francis I Stephen (*1708 Luneville,+1765 Innsbruck).

She was crowned in 1741 at St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

Her issue who reigned:

-JOSEPH II (*1741,+1790),

-Marie Amalie (*1746,+1804; Duchess of Parma),

-LEOPOLD II (*1747,+1792),

-Marie Caroline (*1752,+1814; Queen of the Two Sicilies),

-Ferdinand (*1754,+1806; Duke of Massa-Carrara),

-Marie Antoinette (*1755,+1793; Queen of France).

Died in 1780 in Vienna.

Buried with her consort Emperor Francis I Stephen in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE (Habsburg-Lotharingiai ház)

1780-1790: JOSEPH II (II. József; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1741 in Schönbrunn.

Father: Emperor Francis I Stephen. Mother: Queen Maria Theresa of Hungary.

Married firstly in 1760 in Vienna Princess Isabella of Bourbon-Parma (*1741 Madrid,+1763 Vienna).

Married secondly in 1765 in Vienna Princess Maria Josepha of Bavaria (*1739 Munich,+1767 Vienna).

He was never crowned in Hungary.

Died in 1790 in Vienna.

Buried with his both consorts in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1790-1792: LEOPOLD II (II. Lipót; Roman Emperor, German king, King of Bohemia and Croatia, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Archduke of Austria)

Born in 1747 in Schönbrunn.

Father: Emperor Francis I Stephen. Mother: Queen Maria Theresa of Hungary.

Married in 1765 in Innsbruck Princess MARIA LOUISA of Spain and Sicily (*1745 Portici near Naples,+1792 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1790 in St Martin's Cathedral at Bratislava (Pozsony).

His issue who reigned:

-Maria Theresa (*1767,+1827; Queen of Saxony),

-FRANCIS I (1768,+1835),

-Ferdinand (1769,+1824; Grand Duke of Tuscany).

Died in 1792 in Vienna.

Buried with his consort Queen Maria Louisa in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1792-1835: FRANCIS I (I. Ferenc; Roman Emperor, Archduke and Emperor of Austria, German king, King of Bohemia, Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia and Lombardo-Venetia)

Born in 1768 in Florence.

Father: King Leopold II of Hungary. Mother: Queen Maria Louisa of Spain.

Married firstly in 1788 in Vienna Duchess Elizabeth of Württemberg (*1767 Treptow,+1790 Vienna).

Married secondly in 1790 in Vienna Princess MARIA THERESA of Naples-Sicily (*1772 Naples,+1807 Vienna).

Married thirdly in 1808 in Vienna Archduchess MaARIA LODOVICA of Modena (*1787 Monza,+1816 Verona).

Married fourthly in 1816 in Vienna Princess CAROLINE AUGUSTA of Bavaria (*1792 Mannheim,+1873 Vienna).

He was crowned in 1792 in the Franciscan Church at Buda.

His third consort Maria Lodovica of Modena was crowned in 1808 in St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

His fourth consort Caroline Augusta of Bavaria was crowned in 1825 in St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

His issue who reigned:

-Marie Louise (*1791,+1847; Empress of the French; daughter of Maria Theresa),

-FERDINAND V (*1793,+1875; son of Maria Theresa),

-Maria Leopoldina (*1797,+1826; Queen of Portugal and Empress of Brazil; daughter of Maria Theresa).

Died in 1835 in Vienna.

Buried with all his consorts in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1835-1848: FERDINAND V (Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia and Lombardo-Venetia)

Born in 1793 in Vienna.

Father: King Francis I of Hungary. Mother: Queen Maria Theresa of Naples-Sicily.

Married in 1831 in Vienna Princess MARIA ANNA of Sardinia (*1803 Rome,+1884 Prague).

He was crowned in 1830 in St Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava (Pozsony).

Abdicated in 1848.

Died in 1875 in Prague.

Buried with his consort Queen Maria Anna of Sardinia in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1848-1916: FRANCIS JOSEPH I (I. Ferenc József; Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia and Lombardo-Venetia)

Born in 1848 in Vienna.

Father: Archduke Francis of Austria. Mother: Archduchess Sophia of Bavaria.

Married in 1854 in Vienna Duchess ELIZABETH of Bavaria (*1837 Munich,+1898 Geneva).

He was crowned with his consort Elizabeth of Bavaria in 1867 in St Matthew's Church in Budapest.

Died in 1916 in Vienna.

Buried with his consort Queen Elizabeth of Bavaria in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1916-1918: CHARLES IV

(IV. Károly; Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, Croatia-Slavonia and Dalmatia)

Born in 1887 in Persenbeug.

Father: Archduke Otto of Austria. Mother: Archduchess Maria of Saxony.

Married in 1911 in Schwarzau am Steinfelde Princess ZITA of Bourbon-Parma (*1892 Villa Pianore,+1989 Zizers, Switzerland).

He was crowned with his consort Zita of Bourbon-Parma in 1916 in St Matthew's Church in Budapest.

His issue who reigned: OTTO II (*1912).

Deposed in 1918 and exiled in Switzerland (1919-1921) and on Madeira (1921-1922).

Died in 1922 in Monte, Madeira.

Buried in the Church of Our Lady of Monte, Madeira (Portugal).

His consort Queen Zita was buried in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

1918-1919: REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY

 

 

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY 1919-1946:

HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE (Habsburg-Lotharingiai ház)

1919-1922: CHARLES IV (IV. Károly; nominally)

 

1922-1946: OTTO II (nominally)

Born in 1912 in Villa Wartholz near Reinhenau, Lower Austria.

Father: King Charles IV of Hungary. Mother: Queen Zita of Bourbon-Parma.

Married in 1951 in Nancy, France Princess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen (*1925 Würzburg,+2010 Pöcking).

He was never crowned.

Exiled on Madeira, in Spain, Belgium, USA and Germany.

Formally deposed by the communists in 1946 when Hungary became a republic.

Died in 2011 in Pöcking, Germany.

Buried with his consort Princess Regina in the Capuchin Church in Vienna.

 

 

REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY FROM 1946

 

 

The tomb of Queen GISELA OF BAVARIA, consort of King Stephen I, in Niedernburg Convent in Passau (Germany)

 

The tomb of King ANDREW I in Tihany Abbey (Hungary)

 

The tomb of King SALOMON

in the Cathedral of Pula (Croatia)

 

The tomb of Duke Henry II of Austria where Queen AGNES OF AUSTRIA, consort of King Stephen III, is buried. The Scottish Church in Vienna (Austria)

 

The tomb of Queen CONSTANCE OF ARAGON, consort of King Emerich, in the Cathedral of Palermo (Italy)

 

 

The tomb of Queen AGNES OF AUSTRIA, consort of King Andrew III, in the Benedictine Abbey in St Paul im Lavanttal (Austria)

 

The tomb of Queen MARGARET OF DURAZZO, consort of King Charles II the Short, in the Cathedral of St Matthew in Salerno (Italy)

 

 

The cenotaph of King ULÁSZLÓ I in his Mausoleum in Varna (Bulgaria)

 

 

The tomb of Queen MARY OF HABSBURG, consort of King Louis II, in the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain)

 

The tombs of King MATTHEW II and his consort Queen ANNA OF TYROL in the Capuchin Church in Vienna (Austria)

 

The tomb of Queen MARIA THERESA and her consort Emperor FRANCIS STEPHEN in the Capuchin Church in Vienna (Austria)

 

 

HUNGARIAN CORONATIONS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

(Year, venue, name of the crowned):

1001 ESZTERGOM: Saint Stephen I

1044 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Peter Orseolo

1047 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Andrew I

1058 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Salomon (1st coronation)

1061 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Béla I

1063 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Salomon and Judith Mary of Germany

1074 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Géza I

1077 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Saint Ladislaus

1095 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Koloman the Beauclerc

1114 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Stephen II

1131 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Béla II the Blind

1141 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Géza II

1161 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Stephen III

1161 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ladislaus II

1162 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Stephen IV

1174 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Béla III

1185 and 1196 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Emerich

1204 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ladislaus III

1205 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Andrew II and Gertrude of Andechs

1207 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Béla IV (1st coronation)

1235 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Béla IV and Mary of Nicaea

1266 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Stephen V and Elizabeth

1272 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ladislaus IV the Cumanian and Elizabeth of Sicily

1290 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Andrew III

1296 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Agnes of Austria, consort of King Andrew III

1301 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Wenceslaus I

1305 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Otto I

1309 BUDA: Charles I Robert (the Buda coronation)

1310 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Charles I Robert (Székesfehérvár coronation)

1320 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Elizabeth of Poland, consort of Charles I Robert

1342 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Louis I the Great

1382 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Maria

1385 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Charles II the Little

1387 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Sigismund of Luxembourg

1408 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Barbara of Cilli, consort of King Sigismund of Luxembourg

1437 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Albrecht Habsburg and Elizabeth of Bohemia and Hungary

1440 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ulászló I

1440 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ladislaus V the Posthumous

1464 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Matthew I Corvinus

1476 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Beatrice of Naples, consort of King Matthew I Corvinus

1490 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ulászló II Rex Bene

1502 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Anne of Foix, consort of King Ulászló II

1516 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Louis II

1526 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: John I

1527 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Ferdinand I and Anna Jagiellonian

1539 SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR: Isabella of Poland, consort of John I

1563 BRATISLAVA (POZSONY): Maximilian I and Maria of Spain

1572 BRATISLAVA: Rudolph I

1608 BRATISLAVA: Matthew II

1613 BRATISLAVA: Anna of Tyrol, consort of Matthew II

1618 BRATISLAVA: Ferdinand II

1622 BRATISLAVA: Eleanor of Mantua, consort of Ferdinand II

1625 SOPRON: Ferdinand III

1638 SOPRON: Maria Anna of Spain, consort of Ferdinand III

1646 BRATISLAVA: Ferdinand IV

1655 BRATISLAVA: Leopold I

1655 SOPRON: Eleanor of Mantua-Nevers-Gonzaga, consort of Ferdinand III

1681 SOPRON: Eleanor Magdalen of the Palatinate-Neuburg, consort of Leopold I

1687 BRATISLAVA: Joseph I

1712 BRATISLAVA: Charles III

1714 BRATISLAVA: Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

1741 BRATISLAVA: Maria Theresa

1790 BRATISLAVA: Leopold II

1792 BUDA: Francis I

1808 BRATISLAVA: Maria Lodovica of Modena, consort of Francis I

1825 BRATISLAVA: Caroline Augusta of Bavaria, consort of Francis I

1830 BRATISLAVA: Ferdinand V

1867 BUDA: Francis Joseph I and Elizabeth of Bavaria

1916 BUDA (BUDAPEST): Charles IV and Zita of Bourbon-Parma

HUNGARIAN REGALIA

 

The most important items of the Hungarian regalia are kept at the Hungarian Parliament in Budapest and include:

-Saint Stephen's Crown (11th century),

-Royal Sceptre (12th century),

-Royal Orb (14th century),

-Hungarian Coronation Sword (early 16th century),

-Hungarian Coronation Mantle (11th century).

 

Until 1918 the crown of Hungarian queens (early 19th c.) was kept in the Treasury at Vienna from where it was removed in 1918 by King Charles IV (Emperor Charles I of Austria) and taken to his Swiss exile. Its further wherabouts are unknown.

 

The Crown of St Stephen (11th c.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Zita wearing

the crown of the Hungarian queen

following her

coronation in 1916

THE HOLY CROWN OF ST STEPHEN

BY ALEXANDER BORG

Courtesy of Mr. Alexander Borg (This article was first published in "Royalty Digest")

 

The regalia of the Kingdom of Hungary ranks among the most ancient and complete in Europe. Though not all of it is quite as old as some Hungarians like to believe, parts of the regalia do reach back to the eleventh century, just decades after the founding of the Christian kingdom by King (later Saint) Stephen.

 

Hungarians have venerated the Holy Crown of St Stephen, not only as a symbol of power, but as a necessary prerequisite to the wielding of royal authority. Whereas in other European states the act of anointing was the most important moment of the coronation, in Hungary there were three laws that had to be complied with in order for the monarch to be considered legitimate: firstly, that he should be crowned with the Holy Crown; secondly, that the Archbishop of Esztergom should perform the coronation; and thirdly, that this should take place in Fehervar. The first of these laws gives us an indication of just how important the crown as an object was, and why it had such a chequered history over the centuries.

 

The idea that the royal crown is the very crown with which St Stephen was crowned is, sadly, probably a myth. Most of King Stephen's regalia were probably spirited away, to Bohemia or to Rome, during the earlier struggles for the Hungarian throne between 1045 and the early thirteenth century. What we call the Holy Crown of St Stephen today is very likely a replacement crown. lt originated as two separate crowns that were joined together at some point in the thirteenth century. These have been given the names of the corona graeca and the corona latina. The corona graeca is undoubtedly of Byzantine origin and was probably intended as a queen consort's crown. It consists of a gold band, at the top and bottom of which are single rows of pearls. In between these, gemstones and cloisonné enamels alternate, and the band is surmounted with triangular and arched crests made of gold and translucent enamel. lt is the presence of these crests that indicates this was originally a female consort's crown. The front of the crown is surmounted by an arched enamel, which depicts Christ the Pantocrator. The square enamels mounted on the band depict the archangels Michael and Gabriel, and Saints George, Demetrius, Cosmas and Damian. St George is the patron saint of soldiers. He and Dernetrius were thought to protect the empire from foreign incursions; while Cosmas and Damian are known as the physician saints, whose job it is to ensure the mortal well-being of the sovereign. On the back of the crown is a mount similar to that of the Pantocrator, depicting the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Ducas, and beneath him, in squares fixed to the band, are two lesser mortals, his youthful co-emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitos, and King Geza I of Hungary. The two Byzantine Emperors' titles are rendered in red, while Geza's are in blue. His legend reads: "Geovitzas pistos krales Tourkias", which may be translated as "Geza the Believer King of Turkey." (The reference to Turkey is probably merely a reference to the fact that the Hungarians were not Greeks!) The reigns of all three sovereigns coincided between 1074 and 1077 and the corona graeca can therefore be dated to this period (1). It was possibly the crown of Synadene, the Byzantine wife of King Geza I. Suspended from the band of the corona graeca are nine pendants each made up of three gems: four pendants hang down from each side of the crown and a single one from the back. This was not an unusual feature of Byzantine crowns.

 

The corona latina, on the other hand, is much more obscure in its origins and might not have been intended as a crown at all. Traditionally this has been thought to be a remaining fragment of the original crown given to King Stephen by Pope Sylvester II. More recently, other suppositions have been made about it. It may have been fashioned from the ornamental part of a book cover, or a reliquary, or perhaps a portable altar. It could, alternatively, be what is known as an asterisk: in the Orthodox Church, this is a frame placed over Eucharistic bread to prevent the veil that covers the bread from actually touching it. Byzantine religious institutions were known to have survived in predominantly Roman Catholic Hungary long after the Schism that occurred between the two churches. The corona latina is no longer complete. Stylistically Romanesque, it is adorned with plaques depicting eight of the apostles, but there are indications that the missing four might have been attached at some time. Unlike the enamels on the corona graeca, which were most likely manufactured in Constantinople, those on the corona latina are believed to have been produced in Hungary. There is disagreerment on the precise dating of their manufacture, with suggestions ranging from 1160 to 1230.

 

Originally the crown was surmounted by a cross (or perhaps a lily) which might well have been a reliquary containing a fragment of the True Cross. It may be that this is the reason, why the crown came to be referred to as a holy crown. Queen Isabella broke off the cross in 1551 and gave it to her son, John Sigismund, to wear as a pectoral cross. The current cross is a replacement that dates from this time. We do not know why the cross came to be bent, but a diagram drawn in 1790 shows it already bent.

 

The crown has had a most turbulent history, due partly to the fact that after the death of the last king of the indigenous Arpad dynasty in 1301, the monarchy became an elective one. In 1307 the crown was captured, along with Otto, the King to whom it belonged, by Ladislas, Voivode of Transylvania, who kept the regalia until 1310, when, under threat of excommunication, he handed them back. The crown's absence caused such difficulties for Charles of Anjou - to whom the throne passed after Otto, and whose assumption of power many Hungarians could not properly accept without coronation with the Holy Crown - that the feudal lords of Hungary considered asking the Pope to ban the crown and deprive it of its holy status. Ladislas returned it in time, however, for this not to have to happen. Later, during a power struggle for the throne in 1440, the crown was stolen by King Albert's widow, Queen Elizabeth, who was pregnant and trying to stave off the possibility of Wladyslaw of Poland being crowned King of Hungary lest she should bear a son. In the ensuing struggle the Queen sent the crown to her relative, Emperor Frederick III, who had designs on the Hungarian throne himself and who refused to hand back the crown until 1464.

 

After Hungary's defeat by the Turks at the battle of Mohacs in 1526, the crown passed into the hands of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, who passed it on to the usurper King Janos Szapolyai, who kept it in Transylvania. A contemporary witness, who felt that Janos Szapolyai was unfit to be king on account of the blood on his hands, writes that the crown began to revolve on his head when placed on it as an indication of his unfitness for high office! When Szapolyai died, his widow handed the crown to the Emperor Ferdinand I and thereafter it was kept in the Habsburg treasury in either Vienna or Prague, along with the rest of the Hungarian regalia. From that time, Pozsony (Bratislava) was the chosen place of coronation for Hungarian kings, and in 1608 it was decided that the insignia should be kept at the castle at Pozsony. From there, it was removed three times: to Vienna and a number of other cities from 1616 to 1622 during a period of unrest and invasion; to Györ in 1644, when Hungary was invaded by the Prince of Transylvania; and to Austria in 1683, during the Turkish advance.

 

Between 1703 and 1712, the crown was kept in Vienna. The pretext for its removal had been that the castle of Pozsony had been struck by lightning and partially burnt down. This, however, coincided with a war of independence led by Ferenc Rakoczi II, during which the Hungarians attempted to dethrone the Habsburgs but failed. Thereafter, the crown was again deposited at Pozsony until 1784. Emperor Joseph II, with his policy of enlightened absolutism, refused to be crowned, and had all his crowns brought to Vienna, including the Hungarian one. In Hungary he was merely mocked for this, and as he was dying, he rescinded his decrees and allowed the regalia to be returned, which they duly were in 1790. Shortly thereafter, it became the custom to have kings crowned at Buda.

 

During the Napoleonic Wars the coronation regalia were taken to provincial towns for safety. Subsequently, they were stored at Buda. When it became evident that the Revolution of 1848-9 had failed, the entire regalia were spirited away by rebel ministers who buried them in a chest by a riverbank, and there they remained until 1853, when they were discovered and carried back to Budapest in triumph. The Emperor Francis Joseph was duly crowned in Buda in 1867, although he had reigned since 1848. This was particularly symbolic as the coronation marked the end of the unitary Austrian Empire and the beginning of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

 

Thereafter, the Holy Crown was used for only one more coronation, that of King Karl in 1916. A set of stamps issued to mark the occasion portrays the young king adorned with St Stephen's crown. During the period when Hungary was a monarchy with out a monarch - from 1919 to 1946, and particularly up to 1944, the Holy Crown remained as the focus of national sovereignty. It appeared on postage stamps and currency, on public buildings and on the national flag. Even Ferenc Szalasi, the leader of the Nazi - inspired Arrow Cross Party, who was installed as leader by Hitler after the Regent, Admiral Horthy, had been arrested, swore an oath on the crown in 1944. As the Russians advanced towards Budapest in 1945, Szalasi and his government fled towards Austria, taking the crown and other regalia with them. Upon the defeat of the Axis, those who had been entrusted with guarding the regalia buried them and turned over the empty chest to the Arnericans, who were unaware that it was empty. Some weeks later, one of those who had buried the regalia disclosed their whereabouts, and they were turned over to the Americans. They were transported to Fort Knox during the Cold War years and held in trust there. After a great deal of negotiation, and perhaps to indicate that Janos Kadar's government had earned the seal of approval, the regalia were returned to Hungary on 6th January, 1978 and are new on display in the capital for all to see.

 

In the years immediately before the downfall of communism, when the authorities were quietly restoring pre-communist street narnes and dismantling their particular socialist monolith in various other ways, the Holy Crown of St Stephen started making its own quiet reappearance: in the Castle Hill district of Budapest, upon newly restored lamp-posts, the old royal arms, complete with crown, suddenly became visible. The average man in the street did not seem to be able to state categorically whether they had been newly put back, or whether they had always been there but had been allowed to "fade" in the flaking paint and the rust. After the downfall of communism, the hated socialist symbols were quickly dispensed with. After a debate as to whether the old national arms should be restored with the crown or without - there were those who felt that a crown was unnecessary in a democratic republic - the decision was taken to restore the arms in their entirety. One of the first post-communist stamps depicts the arms in glorious colour. Once again, the Holy Crown of St Stephen is to be seen gracing public buildings of every kind, restored to its position as the symbol of Hungarian nationhood.

 

Notes

1.The whole story of the regalia has by no means been established. Other scholars claim that the corona graeca might be even older, dating back to 1067.

 

Sources

With the exception of the last paragraph, this article is drawn in its entirety from two books: primarily, The Hungarian Crown and Other Regalia, by Eva Kovacs and Zsuzsa Lovag, Budapest, Corvina, 1988; and to a lesser extent from a book also called The Hungarian Crown and Other Regalia, by Zsuzsa Lovag, Budapest, Hungarian National Museum, 1986.

 

Select Bibliography

Hankó Ildikó: Királyaink tömegsírban, 2004 Magyar Ház

Reifenscheid R.: Die Habsburger. Von Rudolf I. bis Karl I., Graz 1982

Spórna M. & Wierzbicki P.: Słownik władców Polski i pretendentów do tronu polskiego, Kraków 2003

Znamierowski A.: Illustrated Book of Flags, London 2003